In India’s fight against the pandemic, the Centre-States relations have witnessed/witnessing frictions regarding vital decisions.Political scuffle over key issues like declaration of the nationwide lockdown without the consultation of the States, the irregular supply of essential medical equipment, the plight of the migrant workers and the tackling of the crisis .... Read More
Marine Ecosystems are aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt in contrast to freshwater ecosystem. Marine ecosystems are found near the shores and not on land. Marine ecosystems are defined by their unique biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors. Biotic factors include plants, animals, and microbes while important abiotic .... Read More
Satish Kumar Karna
The security landscape in the Indo-Pacific region has experienced significant changes in the last few decades. The increasing assertiveness of China in the South and East China Sea, border standoff with India in the Eastern Ladakh along with the nuclear missile experiments conducted by North Korea, has generated .... Read More
Are technological advances and equitable development at odds? That’s one question in focus as we mark World Day of Social Justice, which this year looks closer at how to ensure the digital economy does not deepen inequality. Visions of a global knowledge-based economy and universal electronic commerce, characterized by the .... Read More
by- Chandrakant Singh
Foreign Trade has been one of the most significant determinants of economic development in a country. The foreign trade of a country consists of inward and outward movement of goods and services, which result into outflow and inflow of foreign exchange from one country to another country.
International trade .... Read More
Satish Kumar Karna
Permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council is an important and legitimate aspiration for India in order to discharge its rightful role in the maintenance of international peace and security. Being the largest democratic country, India is trying to get the coveted permanent seat at the UNSC .... Read More
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an environmental decision support tool, which provides information on the potential impacts of development projects on environment, society, economy and human health, both beneficial and adverse.
The objective of EIA is to ensure sustainable development through informed and transparent decision-making while planning a development project.
UNEP .... Read More
An explosion of material aspirations is posing new challenges to Indian democracy. Beneath all the outrage about crony capitalism, inept governance and absent jobs is an unrest that arises from a fundamental mismatch between the economic and political sphere. We may be equal inside the polling booth – with one-person .... Read More
The monetary policy of British India was highly controversial during the interwar period as it aimed to protect the budgetary obligations and private commerce. The currency stabilization policy was seen as a tool to protect the British economic interest while they ruled India. The currency came under serious pressure during .... Read More
Satish Kumar Karna
Indo-US relations over the past two decades have been well ordered with the only wrinkle being in trade and immigration issues. Trade related market access has traditionally been an irritant in the bilateral relationship, immigration issues flared up mainly during the Trump administration. With the change in guard .... Read More
Recently, a group of the US Senators, in a letter, has asked India to join the Blue Dot Network (BDN). They also backed India’s decision to invite Australia to the annual Malabar naval exercise, which India did.
Given the rising anti-China narrative across the globe, the scope for promoting the BDN .... Read More
The year 2021 brings a sense of hope to Indians with India's drugs regulator, Drugs Controller General of India, approving emergency use authorization of Oxford COVID-19 vaccine Covishield, locally manufactured by Serum Institute of India and Bharat Biotech's indigenously manufactured Covaxin. However, a streak of uncertainty is also looming .... Read More
Climate change, or more aptly, climate chaos, is arguably one of the major challenges of the 21st century, and is often considered an existential threat to humanity. However, recent research suggests that no matter how ambitious our efforts are, current emission trends indicate that it is unlikely we will .... Read More
-Satish Kumar Karna
BRICS is an acronym for 5 emerging economies of the world namely – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The term BRIC was coined by Jim O’ Neil, an economist and the then chairman of Goldman Sachs in 2001.The first BRIC summit took place in the year .... Read More
Deforestation and forest degradation have been globally acknowledged to contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The most prominent global mechanism to tackle deforestation and forest degradation is called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, or REDD+.
Since its formalisation in 2007 at the United Nations Conference of .... Read More
Solid waste management affects everyone; however, those most affected by the negative impacts of poorly managed waste are largely society’s most vulnerable — losing their lives and homes from landslides of waste dumps, working in unsafe waste-picking conditions, and suffering profound health repercussions.
Too often, the environment also pays a high .... Read More
Ramsar Convention, adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar nearly a half-century ago, recently issued its first-ever global report on the state of the world's wetlands.The report found that around 35 percent of wetlands -- which include lakes, rivers, marshes and peatlands, as well as coastal and marine areas like .... Read More
The protection and revival of degraded and deforested land is the need of the hour. In order to tackle the issues that arise as a consequence of degradation and deforestation, principles of forest landscape restoration are being globally promoted. The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to bring 150 million .... Read More
When the Constitution was enacted, there was a self-conscious sense that India was finding a way to resolve major considerable debates and discords over norms and values. The task of Constitutionalism was a Morality that surpasses positions and disagreements on particular issues; its strength was that it gave a framework .... Read More
By Saloni Nandkeolyar “We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children”. This quote given by Chief Seattle is a reminder for all of us that the resources available today should not be treated as our sole property and must be used judiciously.The term .... Read More
The digital payments market in India is set to become a trillion-dollar industry in the next five years, led by growth in mobile payments which are slated to rise to $190 billion by 2023 from $10 billion in 2017-18, according to the NITI Aayog. This would present huge business opportunities .... Read More
The Indian Himalayan Region, with its physical grandeur, natural splendor and spiritual aura, have shaped India’s civilization and cultural legacy that pervades through the lives of 1.3 billion people.The region and its communities experiences a range of demographic, environmental and social stresses.Given the uniqueness of the Himalayas, utmost care has .... Read More
The Constitution of India commits India to the path of the rule of law. However, the journey towards a society based on the rule of law is a long and arduous one. For 70 years after the coming into force of the Constitution of the United States, the practice of .... Read More
The rationale for investing in Nutrition is globally well recognized – both as a critical development imperative, as well as crucial for the fulfillment of human rights- especially of the most vulnerable children, girls and women. It constitutes the foundation for human development, by reducing susceptibility to infections, related morbidity, .... Read More
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has made a profound impact on curtailing the loss of species and biodiversity on earth since its inception in 1992. The landmark convention has completed 25 years conserving biodiversity on May 22, 2018, the day which is celebrated as the International Day for Biological .... Read More
The increasing frequency of natural & human activity induced disasters and climate related extreme events like cloud bursts, heavy precipitation and associated floods and large scale destruction resulting into hazards in recent time has led to huge damage in life and property. Climate sensitive nation like India, with large number .... Read More
Conversations about the IoT are and have been for several years, taking place all over the world as everybody seeks to understand how this will impact their lives. Behind the buzzword, experts see an arriving industrial revolution. From homes to industries, and everything in between, IoT is changing the world. .... Read More
With intelligent machines enabling high-level cognitive processes like thinking, perceiving, learning, problem solving and decision making, coupled with advances in data collection and aggregation, analytics and computer processing power, Artificial Intelligence (AI) presents opportunities to complement and supplement human intelligence and enrich the way people live and work.
India, being the .... Read More
Human rights and environment are inter-related, inter-connected, mutually responsive and crucial issues. Both are concerned with development and promotion of human welfare. Everyone likes to live in a healthy environment, which is a basic human right. Environment pollution is a worldwide problem and India, too, is facing the menace. While .... Read More
India is undergoing the worst water crisis in its history. Already, more than 600 million people are facing acute water shortages. Critical groundwater resources – which account for 40% of our water supply – are being depleted at unsustainable rates.
Droughts are becoming more frequent, creating severe problems for India’s rain-dependent .... Read More
Blockchain’s grand promise is to do for transparency what the Internet did for communication. It increases trust between two parties- a particularly big deal in economies with low counterparty trust.
It is important to note that the Government had showed willingness to explore the use of Blockchain in their effort to .... Read More
Over the years, there has been an evolution in India’s policy towards nonproliferation-related export controls and the associated regimes. During the Cold War, India considered itself a target; beginning in the 1990s, its policy began to shift in keeping with economic liberalization at home and changing global perceptions about the .... Read More
India has set in motion plans to revive talks on linking the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) pact of the World Trade Organisation to the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) to check instances of biopiracy and misappropriation of traditional knowledge by global corporates.
In June 2018, India and a group of .... Read More
Oil is one of the most important commodity in terms of its usage in the global economy and it feeds into everything and impacts a country’s economic growth. The effect of change in oil prices ripples across all nations and all sectors of the economy, directly or indirectly. Oil prices .... Read More
Covid-19 pandemic has impacted several people across the globe.Some intelligence agencies initially proclaimed that coronavirus occurred naturally from bats but later on, they claimed that the pandemic might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China after the researchers were probably able to figure out how bat coronaviruses could .... Read More
Sometimes, certain things are so common that people do not flinch a bit even if the law of the land says the act is illegal. People go about their daily routine all too oblivious of the harsh reality of our country, that still thousands of people go to work .... Read More
Satish Kumar Karna
On November 1, observed as Independence Day in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan’s Prime Minister announced his government’s plan to grant provisional provincial status to the region, in turn making it the fifth province of Pakistan despite India’s contentions and claim over the territory.
Gilgit-Baltistan is an autonomous region and .... Read More
Recently, China, the largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world has announced to balance out its carbon emissions with specific measures to offset them before 2060. With this, the spotlight is on the U.S. and India, ranking second and third in emissions. Also, India ranks fifth in the Global Climate .... Read More
Recently, parliament of India passed,three farm bills amid massive protests by farmers across many states. Similar upsurge of protests had followed the passage of Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA). Such incidents raise the question about the status of public protests in India. Also, the Supreme Court has delivered its verdict .... Read More
Satish Kumar Karna
Nagorno-Karabakh is a territorial and ethnic conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in Central Asia over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding districts, which are controlled by Armenia in reality. However, it is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan ignored the norms established by the OSCE .... Read More
From taps running dry to flooding, 30 cities in India could face dramatically increased “water risks" by 2050 unless urgent actions are taken to mitigate and adapt to climate change, according to the scenarios in the WWF Water Risk Filter report. Cities across India have been facing acute shortage .... Read More
Since the past two decades, air pollution has become a global public health issue and is identified as a major environmental health hazard. Since the introduction of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, various pollution control programs have been focusing on controlling air pollution in India; however, the .... Read More
Protecting and managing intellectual property rights (IPR) is the first step for any business seeking to establish its presence in India, and must be incorporated as an integral part of the business asset growth strategy.
In India, there are different types of intellectual property, which are protected under separate laws. Intellectual .... Read More
Since the invention of computers or machines, the capability to perform various tasks went on growing exponentially. Humans have developed the power of computer systems in terms of their diverse working domains, their increasing speed, and reducing size with respect to time.A branch of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence pursues .... Read More
OverviewThe agriculture sector employs nearly half of the workforce in the country. However, it contributes to 17.5% of the GDP (at current prices in 2015-16). Over the past few decades, the manufacturing and services sectors have increasingly contributed to the growth of the economy, while the agriculture sector’s contribution has .... Read More
In 1960’s, a common man like us thought of something brilliant across the wavelets of that time that involved the culture of space in it. In the midst of the initial take off into the World of Space, it was Dr. Vikram Sarabhai (the visionary leader), who encouraged the masses .... Read More
The Union Cabinet recently allowed foreign airlines to invest up to 49 per cent under approval route in Air
India. The other amendments in FDI Policy include 100 per cent FDI under automatic route for single brand retail trading. Also, 100 per cent FDI under automatic route in construction development has .... Read More
Issues & Challenges
Forests play a vital role in social, cultural, historical, economic and industrial development of any country and in maintaining its ecological balance. Forests satisfy multiple needs of multitude of users. The premium on forests can be understood by recognizing them as the primary producers and protectors of several .... Read More
Emerging Issues & India’s Response
A fourth dimension has been added to threats national security faced till now. And this fourth dimension is cyber space. Recently, a report titled Cyber Resilience: Playbook for Public-Private Collaboration, prepared by the World Economic Forum (WEF) has warned that cybersecurity threats are outpacing the abilities .... Read More
Building on India’s Family Planning Success
India was the first country in the world to adopt an official population policy and launch an official family planning programme way back in 1952. Since then, planned efforts have been the mainstay of population stabilisation programme in the country under various names. Initially, these .... Read More
Analysing Conceptual Links Between them
Why does the poverty of excluded groups continue to be high? Literature on Indian poverty, extensive as it is, has indeed enriched our understanding on the magnitude and causes of poverty. While it is quite rich in some respects, in some other respects, it offers a .... Read More
Security Implications for India
India’s growth and development is closely linked with that of its South Asian neighbours. Its South Asian neighbours, although distinct political entities, are part of the broad based Indian civilization and have many common characteristics. However, developments of the last few decades have shown that despite numerous .... Read More
Time of Anti-Globalization Wave
In recent years, anti-globalization tendencies have surfaced with the recent developments in the US during and after the elections and the Brexit referendum with people viewing trade, immigration, and multilateral engagements with some amount of skepticism and becoming wary of the benefits of globalization. In addition .... Read More
All in One
President Ram Nath Kovind and Prime Minister Narendra Modi have both pitched strongly for simultaneous elections to Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies. Commentators have noted in recent weeks that the escalating clamour for “One Nation, One Poll” has coincided with speculation about a snap Lok Sabha election.
In .... Read More
Understanding Two Different Verdicts on the 2G Scam
Nearly six years after 122-2G licenses were cancelled by the Supreme Court, a special CBI court on 21 December, 2017 acquitted former telecom minister A Raja, DMK supremo Karunanidhi’s daughter Kanimozhi and other accused of all charges in the 2G spectrum allocation .... Read More
India Lags Behind
Reports, late last year, on India’s improved ranking in the World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business’ Index (from 130 to 100) have been a cause for much celebration. As a follow-up to this, the government announced additional reform measures to further improve the ranking.
However, coinciding with this is .... Read More
Creating a Shared Future in a Fractured World
Since a low-key debut in the international relations discourse in the 1990s, “globalisation” as a term grew rapidly in usage till about 2004. Since then, if the omniscient eye of Google is to be believed, it has not gained great additional traction. Google’s .... Read More
Looking Beyond NMC Bill
The National Medical Commission (or NMC) Bill 2017, introduced in Lok Sabha on December 29, 2017, provides for the replacement of the MCI. MCI is elected by medical practitioners across the country, while the proposed 25-member National Medical Commission will be selected by a search committee headed .... Read More
Ought to be a Tricky Choice
Indian elections are the world’s biggest exercise in democracy but also among the most expensive. India’s campaign spend is only rivalled by the American presidential race, the world’s most expensive election. Parties and candidates need large sums of money for voter mobilisation, advertising, consulting, transport, .... Read More
Bhima Koregaon: Clash of History
Bhima-Koregaon, a small village in Maharashtra located on the Pune-Ahmadnagar Highway, was in the news. Thousands of people from the Dalit caste had gathered in the village to celebrate the 200th anniversary of a battle won by the British army, mainly comprising the untouchable Mahars, against .... Read More
ASER: India’s Learning Deficit
Non-government organization Pratham has published its Annual Status of Education Report (2017). The survey has adopted Beyond Basics concept, exploring a wider set of domains beyond foundational reading and arithmetic in an attempt to throw light on the status and abilities of youth in this age group. .... Read More
Issue of Judicial Accountability
The Supreme Court was thrown into its biggest-ever crisis recently when its four senior-most judges revolted against Chief Justice of India (CJI) Dipak Misra and launched an unprecedented public attack against his allegedly arbitrary way of assigning important cases to benches headed by junior SC judges, ignoring .... Read More
An Oxfam report was recently released which underscores the dramatic increase in wealth inequality in India in recent years. In 2017 alone, the top 1 per cent of the population owned 73 per cent of the addition to wealth that occurred. A year ago, the top 1 per cent owned .... Read More
Misuse of Executive Power
Recently, 20 legislators of the ruling Aam Aadmi Party in Delhi were disqualified by the President upon the Election Commission's advice. Adjudicating the post of parliamentary secretaries as an Office of Profit, the Election Commission cited the three criteria used by the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Office .... Read More
Shared Values Common Destiny
The remarkable gesture of inviting leaders of 10 ASEAN nation as guests of honour at the Republic Day is a manifestation of our engagement with South East Asia. The theme of the meet was “Shared Values Common Destiny”, a theme slightly at variance with the “Shared Values .... Read More
Can Parliamentary & Assembly Elections Be Held Simultaneously?With the Election Commission of India (ECI) having indicated that it is ready to execute simultaneous elections, the issue has gathered momentum. While it would actually take a lot of time, the “preparations” by the ECI suggest that the powers-that-be might not be .... Read More
Recently witnessed air pollution problem in North- central India and NCR region was more than a repeat of 2016 when most of the pollution was accredited to intense bursting of crackers during Diwali. Although in 2017, The Supreme Court took proactive step and banned the sale of firecrackers in Delhi, .... Read More
Nowadays social media and internet have been the important part of one’s life from shopping to electronic mails, education and business tool. Social media plays a vital role in transforming people’s life style. Social media includes social networking sites and blogs where people can easily connect with each other. Since .... Read More
One of the fears that has been raised in the aftermath of the government promulgating an ordinance to amend the land acquisition act is that land will be taken away for other purposes and this may cause the amount of land used for farming to come down dramatically.
A recent survey, .... Read More
Is it a Costly Affair?
With an estimated slum population of about 65 million and another 0.9 million homeless people in urban India, the Housing for All / Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY-HFA), which aims to provide a home to all urban poor by 2022, is an important urban policy thrust.
But, .... Read More
It was a historical moment for the US President Donald Trump when he announced that the Persian Gulf kingdom of Bahrain would establish full diplomatic relations with Israel. Bahrain is the 4th Arab country to recognize Israel (Egypt did so in 1979, Jordon in 1994 and UAE recently). Bahrain’s move, .... Read More
-Kartic Godavarthy COVID-19 has wreaked havoc across the human species, in the context of the economy, psychological mindset, social relationships, and most importantly physical health. If you look at each of these aspects from a holistic view, as is done by anthropologists, there are plenty of factors that are especially .... Read More
-K C ShekharRecently, India has announced three new schemes for electronics manufacturing industries- production-linked incentive scheme, component and semiconductor manufacturing promotion scheme and creation of new manufacturing clusters. It is in sync with the new national policy on electronics, unveiled in February 2020, and seeks to promote electronics manufacturing in .... Read More
-Manisha Kukreti As Kofi Annan once rightly said, “Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance.”India has made considerable progress in advancing gender equality and empowerment of women. But it is .... Read More
Astrong and independent judiciary makes a nation stable, progressive and well-developed. Judicial independence requires a well-trained and educated judiciary which commands respect in society and ensures public trust in the institutional strength. An independent and impartial judiciary and a speedy and efficient system of governance are the very essence of .... Read More
Prospects & Challenges
Moody’s which is one among the top global credit rating agencies, recently upgraded India sovereign issue rating to Baa2 from Baa3 with a stable outlook.
What is Sovereign Rating?
Credit rating agencies provide ratings to individuals and companies on their ability to repay debt and rank them accordingly.
Global credit .... Read More
Indian States on Different Epidemiological Transition Levels
18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over .... Read More
Talking Cyber Security & Preventing Information WarCyber security took the centre stage at one of the most influential platforms for discussing developments in the digital ecosystem — Global Conference on Cyberspace (GCCS) — which was hosted in India in 2016. This is a conference held biennially since 2011 where governments, .... Read More
Caste is an institution uniquely associated with the Indian sub-continent. While social arrangements producing similar effects have existed in other parts of the world, the exact form has not been found anywhere.
Meaning of caste: It’s a borrowing from Portuguese word ‘casta’ meaning pure breed.
In Indian sub continent context,
it is .... Read More
Can it be considered a Silver Bullet?Finance Minister Arun Jaitley recently said that the government has decided to inject more capital into state-owned banks to strengthen the banking system and spur economic growth.
In the month of Oct ’17 the government had unveiled a Rs 2.11 lakh crore two-year road map .... Read More
K C Shekhar
The outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, which began in December 2019, evolved eventually to become a global pandemic. The pandemic, along with the obvious health-related impact, also poses a serious threat to the psychological well-being of individuals and has resulted in significant behavioural changes.The enormity of .... Read More
Achieving RE Targets Look Doubtful
The world now hangs precariously on a hinge where it is of utmost importance to tackle climate change and harness renewable energy. Renewable Energy (RE)is a prospect which could replace fossil fuel dependent energy and allow countries to achieve the target ascribed during Paris Agreement. The .... Read More
Does Private Sector Need Regulation?
India’s economy is soaring but healthcare remains an Achilles’ heel. For millions of people the high costs of treatment of illnesses continue to undermine economic progress. This is largely on account of the abysmal and chaotic healthcare system owing to the declining budgetary support by the .... Read More
The Future of Agriculture
The agricultural sector is going to face enormous challenges in order to feed the 9.6 billion people that the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) predicts are going to inhabit the planet by 2050. In addition, food production must increase by 70% by 2050, and this has to .... Read More
Celebrating 25 Years of Togetherness
“ASEAN’s remarkable journey is indeed worthy of reflection as much as it is of celebration. On this historic occasion, I am confident that ASEAN will further resolve to work together with one vision, one identity and as one independent community. India’s Act East Policy is .... Read More
A Way Forward For Women Empowerment
It has been widely experienced that governance structures which do not provide for adequate participation of women, often suffer from State interventions which are neither inclusive nor democratic. Women’s participation across political system including local governments is the most essential prerequisite of creating a just, .... Read More
Using the resources efficiently to produce more while utilizing less has been one of the tested and trusted ways for a sustainable future. It not only ensures the security of the resources but also minimizes the environment impact. In order to ensure that the two ends meet, NITI Aayog in .... Read More
Curbing Cyber Crime
The Justice BN Srikrishna Committee, set up by the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology on July 31, 2017, tasked with writing a draft data protection law, has published a white paper on data protection framework in India, asking for stakeholders’ feedback by December 31, 2017.
Seven Key .... Read More
Does it Go Against the Fundamental Right?
On a petition filed by a BJP Leader, the Supreme Court directed the Centre to constitute special courts to exclusively try criminal cases involving politicians.
A bench of Justices Ranjan Gogoi and Navin Sinha said: “Insofar as setting up of Special Courts are concerned, .... Read More
Stumbling Blocks and Opportunities to Meet INDCs
As the United States vacates its leadership position on climate change, new players are stepping up to take its place. China and India have emerged as the best hope for the world to meet the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) set forth in the .... Read More
A New Challenge Confronting India
While civil liberties lawyers and organizations fought the legal battle in the Supreme Court to stay the deportation of Rohingya Muslims (refugees) from India as per the directive of the Indian Government, it is pertinent to note the lack of recognition for the displaced persons within .... Read More
Can India become a Rising Nuclear Power?
India is slowly getting comfortable inside the global non-proliferation regimes. After its entry into the MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) in June 2016, India has been admitted as the 42nd member of the Wassenaar Arrangement (WA). In the coming months, India expects to enter .... Read More
Is it an Alarm Bell for India?
A new phase has begun in India-Nepal relations with the decisive victory of the coalition of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist Leninist), led by Oli.
Federal elections were held .... Read More
The Curious Case of Brahmputra Turning Black
Recently, several North-eastern States complained that that Chinese construction activity on the upper reaches of one of the largest rivers that flows into India are likely turning the waters downstream turbid and unfit for human consumption.
Assam said the Brahmaputra river was contaminated with bacteria .... Read More
-Satish Kumar Karna
Power in International Relations is defined in relational terms, as the ability to influence others to get the desired outcomes. The term “Soft Power” was coined by eminent scholar Joseph Nye in his book “Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power.” Nye identified three dimensions of .... Read More
By definition, frontier technologies are consistently at the forefront of innovation and cutting edge of development. These advancements can give pivotal arrangements that might be executed later for an enormous scope and accomplish worldwide mainstream adoption. Frontier technologies can add to expanding overall life expectancy and quality of .... Read More
-K C Shekhar
Outer space has been the arena of some of the most memorable technology demonstrations be it Russia’s Sputnik, the U.S.’s Apollo 11 or India’s Chandrayaan and Mangalyaan- all were symbols of national prideand metaphors of geopolitical competition.
But, in recent times the launch of Mars missions by China,UAE and .... Read More
With rapidly changing technologies and constant consumer demand for the latest devices, the rise in e-waste looks set to continue. Lowering the amount of electronics entering the waste stream and improving end of life handling are essential for building a more circular economy, where waste is reduced, resources are conserved .... Read More
With the election season upon us in just few months in some states, it is time to deliberate on the recent February 2020 Supreme Court judgement on criminalization of politics. Additionally, it is also pertinent to analyse the issue comprehensively to create a roadmap for decriminalising politics in India
Supreme .... Read More
Rishabh SrivastavaInternational Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking is celebrated on June 26 every year. The theme for this day in 2020 is, Better Knowledge for Better Carethatemphasiseson the need to improve the understanding of the world drug problem and how better knowledge will foster greater international cooperation for .... Read More
Krishna Chandra Shekhar
The unprecedented high levels of tension at multiple locations in eastern Ladakh on the disputed India-China border, where Chinese soldiers have moved into Indian territory across the Line of Actual Control (LAC), has raised questions about the Chinese motives for this action. A large number of Indian and .... Read More
What can better signify the idea of freedom of expression than the Rigvedic thought “Let noble thoughts come to us from every side”. This was one of the guiding posts for Mahatma Gandhi throughout his journey of Freedom Struggle and later became the keystone of the arch of Indian .... Read More
The outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, which began in December 2019, evolved eventually to become a global pandemic. The pandemic, along with the obvious health-related impact, also poses a serious threat to the psychological well-being of individuals and has resulted in significant behavioural changes.The enormity of living in .... Read More
On April 1, 1950, India became the first non-Communist country in Asia to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC). This year marks the 70thanniversary of diplomatic relation between the two countries.
Ancient Civilizations: India and China are two ancient civilizations, with a long history of .... Read More
India has 15,106.7 km of land border and shares land boundary with 7 countries i.e. Afghanistan, China, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Nepal. Colonial backdrop (poorly marked borders), bitter past relations, rising geo-political ambitions in South-Asia and difficult terrain have resulted in many border disputes.Rising tensions and recent face-off between .... Read More
The Covid-19 pandemic, along with the ensuing lockdown, is an unprecedented health and economic crisis. This is true for the electricity sector, even though “lights are on” in every household. Recently, Moody’s Investors Service changed its outlook for the Indian power sector to negative from stable on declining power demand, .... Read More
-Rishabh SrivastavaThe central government recently announced the inclusion of 23 additional Minor Forest Produce (MFP)items under a centrally-sponsored scheme, Minimum Support Price (MSP) aimed at ensuring fair returnsto tribal MFP gatherers. These 23 new MFP items include van tulsi seeds, van jeera, tamarind seed,bamboo brooms, and seed lac. It is .... Read More
Ashitava DuttaThe concept of human security is central to the understanding of the impact of COVID 19 pandemic on the global society. This pandemic has ruffled the waves of human insecurity in as much as other global issues like climate change, global financial crashes, rise of international terrorism, ethnic conflicts .... Read More
Ministry of HRD (Human Resources Department) on March 28, 2020 announced that access to the national online education platform SWAYAM and other digital initiatives has tripled (predominantly after the severe impact of Corona Virus spread at the global level). Therefore, now it is the time to revisit the online education .... Read More
Reports that the death toll in Wuhan may have been many, many times higher than the 2,535 revealed, will feed into the narrative demanding accountability from China on account of the Covid-19 spread.As a Chinese diplomat in India has put it, ‘China neither created the virus nor intentionally transmitted it.’ .... Read More
The high voltage drama witnessed up till the very last moment when the four convicts of Nirbhaya Case were brought to the noose makes us rethink if it is time for India to do away with Death Penalty (Capital Punishment or Judicial Killing) as a tool of bringing convicts to .... Read More
21st century is marred by the outbreak of various zoonotic diseases. Be it the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus encephalitis, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Swine Flu (H1N1) or Bird Flu (H5N1). They have resulted in millions of fatalities around the globe. The new addition .... Read More
The recent incident of communal riots in capital city and its improper handling has brought the issue of police reforms at centre stage of the governance discourse of the country. Experts are debating about the delay in enforcing standard operating procedure for managing a communal flare-up and curtailing its escalation .... Read More
The USA signed a historic deal with Taliban on 29th February, 2020, which is touted to be a step towards ending 18-years long war. The war which consumed 2000 US armed personnel and 50000 Afghanistan civilians finally seems to have .... Read More
The recent decision of Supreme Court about granting permanent commission to women officers has received wide publicity. In an unprecedented move, the court has brought women officers in 10 streams of the Army at par with their male counterparts in all respects, setting aside longstanding objections of the government. The .... Read More
Agro-based industries consist of processing, preservation and preparation of agricultural production for intermediate and final consumption. It is Industrialization of Agriculture eventually leading to a new industrial sector. As per International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), these include agro-industrial production under manufacture/processing of food, beverages and tobacco, textiles, wearing apparels, leather .... Read More
“Section 124A, under which I am happily charged, is perhaps the prince among the political sections of the Indian Penal Code designed to suppress the liberty of the citizen.”The above statement by Mahatma Gandhi on being charged under section 124A of IPC in 1922 vehemently summarizes the understanding freedom fighters .... Read More
An outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) that originated in Wuhan (China) has spread throughout China and to 31 other countries and territories (in other parts of Asia, Europe, South America, and the United States). By last week of February 2020, more than 81,000 cases have been confirmed worldwide, and .... Read More
Journey from Look East Policy to Act East Policy
Look East Policy emerged as an important foreign policy initiative of India in the post-Cold War period. It was launched in 1991 by the Narasimha Rao government with the aim of developing political contacts, increasing economic integration and forging security cooperation with .... Read More
Recently, the world-wide’s first ever Precision Application Asia event in Bangkok served as a powerful platform for value chain creation and exchange of ideas around the tools of Agriculture’s Third Revolution (first being mechanization and other being Green revolution).Does the inflection point has come for India, where agriculture technology will .... Read More
Thousands of Indians have been protesting against a new citizenship law as well as possible plans for a National Register of Citizens (NRC), alleging the measures are an attack on the secular credential of constitution and rights of minority Muslim community.The Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) aims to fast-track citizenship for .... Read More
BackgroundFollowing the Cuban revolution in 1959, India was one of the few countries to recognize the new regime under Fidel Castro. Both countries were members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and shared a similar world view. In many ways, Cuba became a gateway to Latin America for India.By the 1990s, .... Read More
On 9th November 2019, the five judge Constitutional bench of the Supreme Court (SC) headed by Chief Justice of India RanjanGogoi delivered the landmark verdict on Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid land dispute .... Read More
“The open sea, the Arctic, the Antarctic and the high mountains may seem far away to many people but we depend on them and are influenced by them directly and indirectly in many ways – for weather and climate, for food and water, for energy, trade, transport, recreation and tourism, .... Read More
The collapse of the erstwhile Soviet Union in 1991 led to the creation of five Central Asian Republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Each one of them were conquered by Imperial Russia in the nineteenth century and, was tightly controlled by them.
It was only in the 1950s that .... Read More
In 21st century, almost everyone is online with their significant personal information online as well. Even if this data is in encrypted format, there are many instances of private data breach in the name of security or any other reason. This creates a tussle between the constitutional right to privacy .... Read More
When the Central Government is the largest litigant before the tribunals constituted under various statutes and has an overwhelming say on the appointment process to the tribunals; executive has a controlling authority over diverse facets of the tribunals; it would be destructive of judicial independence which constitutes a basic feature .... Read More
Present SituationData released by NSO suggests that GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth for July-September 2019 came down to 4.55%, the slowest since 4th Quarter (Q4) of 2013. An economy’s GDP is normally determined by the sum of 4 indicators as shown below.Government Expenditure: The government expenditure grew by 15.64% and .... Read More
According to World Trade Organisation (WTO), International Employment mobility is defined under GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) Mode-4. It refers to movement of persons of one WTO member in territory of another WTO member for purpose of providing a service. Also called as Labor Mobility, it refers to .... Read More
The sea of protesters across the country against the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), 2019, is a wake-up call for the government. This is one of the rare issues where people have come together irrespective of existing faultlines to show solidarity with their fellow Indians. At the same time, there is .... Read More
BackgroundAs per the United Nations, world is witnessing the highest levels of displacement with an unprecedented 70.8 million people being forced from their home by conflict and persecution at the end of 2018.
Among them are nearly 30 million refugees, over half of whom are under the age of 18. There .... Read More
IntroductionSeveral heads of state, including those from the Bay of Bengal community (BIMSTEC) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) took part in Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s swearing-in ceremony held on May 30 on India’s invitation. The move is in line with the government’s focus on its ‘Neighbourhood First’ policy as .... Read More
If you could get access to a tool to make you smarter, happier, stronger and disease free, would you grab it with both hands? How about doubling the life span to almost 150-160 years and reducing the sleep hours to just 3-4 hours without fatigue and delirium? What about permanently .... Read More
Winston S. Churchill once said “Healthy citizens are the greatest asset any country can have”. Countries like India, where every year many children die untimely due to lack of healthcare facilities, should realize that their assets are declining and they need immediate attention.
— Rishabh Srivastava
More than 150 children, mostly from .... Read More
The draft National Education Policy, 2019 (henceforth NEP) was amongst the first documents to be released by the new government that took over on 30 May 2019. In the public domain from 1 June 2019, with suggestions invited till 30 June, it requires careful scrutiny.
Summary of Committee Report
The Committee for .... Read More
After more than seven decades of independence of India and constitutional grant for Universal Adult Suffrage; do women still have low participation in Indian Politics, Judiciary, Military and other Institutions and economic dimensions?—by Rishabh SrivastavaThe recent 17th Lok Sabha has the highest representation of women at 14.3% with 78 women .... Read More
Indian External Affairs Minister (EAM) attended the meeting of Council of Foreign Ministers (CFM) of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) held in Bishkek (Kyrgyz Republic) on 21-22 May 2019.
The meeting reviewed the preparations for the forthcoming SCO Heads of the Government Summit in Bishkek on 13-14 June 2019 and also exchanged .... Read More
In a recent study conducted by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) it was found that domestic migrants in a developing country experience substantial decline in mental and physical health even though they earn better. The findings beckon an analysis of internal migration trends in India and their effect on .... Read More
Article 370 is a contentious provision in the Constitution which incites many sentiments of the general public and political parties alike. This article has been in the news numerous times due to its combative nature. At a time when India is going through elections, many political parties have come .... Read More
What is a Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT)?Countries have increasingly engaged in the signing of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) in order to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The basic guiding principle behind such treaties is to ensure protection of investments by the foreign investors in the host country.Foreign investors in general .... Read More
—by Chandrakant Singh
As per the recent report of International Energy Agency, transport sector contributes almost one-quarter (23 percent) of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, it is anticipated to rise to nearly 20 percent from present levels by 2030 and close to 50 percent by 2050, unless major corrective .... Read More
The Economic Survey 2018-19 mentions about the need of big data analysis in Indian perspective and says the data of societal interest is generated by the people, should be “of the people, by the people, for the people.” In a vast country like India, data collection is a tall order, .... Read More
GDP and the Economy
The share of Indian economy in world (measured as a ratio of India’s GDP to world’s GDP at current US$) increased from 2.6 per cent in 2014 to 3.2 per cent in 2017 (as per World Development Indicators database).
The average share of Indian economy in world .... Read More
Ayushman Bharat is a centrally sponsored programme anchored in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
It is an umbrella of two major health initiatives, namely Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) and Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojna (PMJAY).
National Health Policy 2017
The National Health Policy of the country was .... Read More
12 Champion SectorsThe Union Cabinet approved the proposal of the Department of Commerce to give focused attention to 12 identified Champion Services Sectors for promoting their development, and realizing their potential.These include Information Technology & Information Technology enabled Services (IT &ITeS), Tourism and Hospitality Services, Medical Value Travel, Transport and .... Read More
Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP)/ Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP)
This is a paradigm shift from Production Sharing Contract (PSC) regime to Revenue Sharing Contract (RSC) regime based on the principle of ease of doing business.
It provides for single License for exploration and production of conventional as well as .... Read More
SAUBHAGYALaunched for universal electrification in September, 2017Camps organised at village level. Minimum documentation requiredSpecial drive for economically weaker sections under Gram Swaraj AbhiyanOver 2.1 crore households electrified since 11th Oct, 20179 States have achieved 100% saturation in household electrification under Saubhagya namely Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Bihar, J&K, Uttarakhand, Mizoram, Sikkim, .... Read More
NITI Aayog has developed the ‘Healthy States, Progressive India’ Report also known as the ‘Health Index’ in February 2018.
The Composite Water Management Index was also launched in June 2018.
The ‘School Education Quality Index (SEQI)’, ‘SDG India Index’ and the ‘Digital Transformation Index’ (DTI) which will measure states’ .... Read More
Development of New PortsIn addition to projects for capacity expansion of major ports, 6 new port locations, namely – Vadhavan (Maharashtra), Enayam (Tamil Nadu), Tajpur (West Bengal), Paradip Outer Harbour (Odisha), Sirkazhi (Tamil Nadu), Belekeri (Karnataka) have been identified to increase overall cargo handling capacity.Port ModernizationUnder Project Unnati, global benchmarks .... Read More
India’s First Biofuel-powered FlightA historic flight powered by indigenously produced aviation biofuel based on patented technology of CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP), Dehradun completed journey from Dehradun to Delhi on August 27, 2018. With this maiden flight India joined the exclusive club of nations using biofuel in aviation. The use .... Read More
Union Cabinet approved “The DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018”.
The Bill has been formulated for the regulation of the use and application of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) technology with the aim to establish the identity of certain category of persons including the victims, offenders, suspects, under trials, .... Read More
Initiatives for Particularly Vulnerable
bal Groups (PVTGS)
Ministry has enhanced the allocation of funds for the development of PVTGs from Rs 240.00 crores in 2017-18 to Rs 260.00 crores in 2018-19.
State Government have been given the flexibility of utilizing the funds using the gaps identified through Base Line Surveys.
In order to ensure .... Read More
Mumbai’s Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Building Declared as World Heritage by UNESCOIn yet another landmark achievement, India’s nomination of the “Victorian and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai” was inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage list. This makes Mumbai city the second city in India after Ahmedabad to be inscribed on .... Read More
High Performance Computing (HPC)The Ministry of Earth Sciences has augmented its HPC facility by 6.8 Peta Flops (PF) which has been installed at two of its constituent units namely, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune with 4.0 Peta Flops capacity and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), .... Read More
Doubling of Farmers’ Income
The Government has set a target of doubling of farmers’ income by the year 2022.
The Government has constituted an Inter-Ministerial Committee under the Chairmanship of Chief Executive Officer, National Rainfed Area Authority, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare to examine issues relating to doubling of .... Read More
Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP) project aims to implement the mandate of the National Skill Development Mission (NSDM), which was launched on 15th July, 2018 by Ministry of Skill Development through its core sub-missions.
The project will be implemented in mission mode through World Bank support. .... Read More
‘Adopt a Heritage’ Project
Ministry of Tourism in close collaboration with Ministry of Culture and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) launched “Adopt a Heritage Project” to provide world class tourist facilities at the various natural/cultural heritage sites, monuments and other tourist sites.
The project plans to entrust heritage sites/monuments and other .... Read More
World Environment DayConsidering India’s global leadership in environmental protection and climate change sectors, the UNEP had chosen India to be the global host for World Environment Day (WED) on 5th June, 2018. The main event was organized in Delhi and included a series of conferences in Vigyan Bhawan.This WED, 2018 .... Read More
Announcement of Manned Mission
While addressing the nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort on the 72nd Independence Day, the Prime Minster, Shri Narendra Modi announced that India has resolved to send manned spacecraft to the space by 2022 and India will be the fourth country to do this.
So .... Read More
Global Mobility SummitThe Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, outlined the vision for the future of mobility in India, in the Global Mobility Summit held in New Delhi in September 2018. He spelt out 7 Cs: Common, Connected, Convenient, Congestion-free, Charged, Clean and Cutting-edge. AMP 2026The Government of India and .... Read More
—by Chandrakant Singh
In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the launch of both the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. It is essentially a state-financed, state-backed, infrastructure initiative to build infrastructure across Central Asia and other parts of the Indo-Pacific.
Subsequently, both of these initiatives got .... Read More
A Paradigm Moment for India—by Chandrakant Singh
As on April 2019, 75 countries have signed, whereas 52 countries have ratified the International Solar Alliance Framework Agreement.
International Solar Alliance (ISA) is a common platform for cooperation among sun-rich countries lying fully or partially between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn who are .... Read More
Huawei Dispute: Huawei has taken a global lead in development and patenting of 5G technology leaving US far behind. Huawei CFO’s arrest is an indirect way of stifling and containing China’s technological rise and global dominance.
Digital Surveillance: China is a surveillance state and it has been selling its blueprint, including .... Read More
Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
China is challenging the US global economic hegemony through its BRI which seeks to weave the economies of Asia, Europe and Africa into a common network of development and infrastructure projects.
Rather, China seeks to take other countries into its sphere of influence supported by its .... Read More
Renewed Arms Race
Russia and US have recently pulled out of the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, a decision which could trigger the nuclearisation of US and the European continent.
The new National Security Strategy announced by US in December 2017 declares the “revisionist” China and Russia as a threat .... Read More
Recently on 5th April 2019, South Korea launched the world’s first nationwide 5G mobile networks, giving access to super-fast wireless technology to its users. However, the buzzword around 5G technology is doing the rounds since long and has pitted major superpowers against one another to gain an edge over their .... Read More
Security, Trade & Investment and Technology
Recent developments around the world highlight the faint occurrence of dissensions and splitting up of the world into blocs.
Issue: The US and Russia have pulled out of the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty recently.
Impact: This step could lead to renewed nuclear arms race between .... Read More
Does it need Transformation?
– by Noopur Joshi
India is ready to gear up for its biggest festival, the festival of world’s biggest democracy-17th Lok Sabha elections 2019. India’s democracy has its cornerstone on independence, neutrality and integrity of its Statutory and Constitutional bodies. To maintain and preserve this democracy India conducts .... Read More
Every night when you go to sleep after putting an alarm, is that your faith or belief or your daily custom that makes you sure of waking up fit and fine the next morning? For some it is their faith in religion that makes them go to bed peacefully. At .... Read More
Profound corporate governance is a must for the Indian economy, however, India still has a long road to travel towards greater corporate governance.
Poor corporate governance standards in India have been a major grievance of domestic and foreign investors alike for long. Recent instances such Chanda Kochhar Case, IL&FS case, sale .... Read More
Indian Counter Terrorism infrastructure has not been able to evolve itself as per the changing dynamics of terrorism
The recent Pulwama attack on CRPF convoy in Kashmir which claimed more than 40 lives highlights the critical security lapses in Indian counter-terrorism (CT) architecture.
India did not have any structured CT architecture until .... Read More
Renewed efforts are required to establish that multilateralism is nothing more than countries coming together, respecting one another, and establishing the forms of cooperation that guarantee peace and prosperity.
.... Read More
ObjectivesEvidence based policy making should be made integral to the overall governance structure in New India, 2022-23. To achieve this, timely generation and dissemination of robust data at all levels of governance would be a pre-requisite. This would require:Collecting data for new measurable parameters using latest technologies.Improving efficiencies in processes .... Read More
ObjectivesEnsuring that land markets function smoothly, through efficient allocation of land across uses, provision of secure property rights and titles, and clear and consistent regulations around the operations, leasing and sale of land are critical for India to achieve and sustain high economic growth.To this end, the following goals have .... Read More
ObjectiveTo transform our cities into economically vibrant and environmentally sustainable habitats that provide equitable access to basic infrastructure, public services and opportunities to all citizens and platforms for democratic participation.Current SituationIndia is urbanizing at a fast pace and it is expected that by 2050, close to 50 per cent of .... Read More
ObjectiveTo put in place a reformed system of recruitment, training and performance evaluation of the civil service to ensure more effective and efficient delivery of public services to achieve the development goals envisaged in New India 2022.Current SituationThe Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was constituted in 2005 and in 2009, .... Read More
ObjectiveTo ensure the safety and security of citizens and ensure access to effective legal systems and speedy delivery of justice.Current SituationLegal and judicial reforms are urgently needed to address the massive pendency and capacity issues in Indian courts, which impede access to justice.Several archaic and defunct laws have already been .... Read More
ObjectivesThe North-East Region (NER) should:Have adequate road, rail and air connectivity, waterways, internet connectivity and financial inclusion. This will form the platform upon which suitable interventions for all sectors where the NER has a comparative advantage (for e.g., tourism, hydropower generation, handicrafts, organic agriculture, etc.) can be effectively implemented.By 2022-23, .... Read More
ObjectiveAchieve balanced development in India by uplifting 115 districts, currently below the national average in the areas of health and nutrition, education, agriculture and water resources, financial inclusion and skill development, and basic infrastructure.Current SituationThe Aspirational Districts Programme (ADP) was launched on January 5, 2018.A list of 49 target indicators .... Read More
SCs, STs, OBCs, De-Notified Tribes (DNTs), Nomadic Tribes (NTs) and Semi-Nomadic Tribes (SNTs)ObjectiveTo accelerate the socio-economic development of SCs, STs, OBCs, safai karamcharis as well as DNTs, NTs and SNTs through focused affirmative action so as to bring them on par with the rest of the population as far as .... Read More
Senior CitizensObjectiveTo ensure a life of dignity, social security and safety for senior citizens, enabling them to actively participate in economic development and the nation building process.Way ForwardRevise the National Policy for Older Persons. The policy should cover housing, income security, pension, and access to healthcare. It should also emphasize .... Read More
ObjectiveTo create an enabling environment, sans institutional and structural barriers.To enhance the female labour force participation rate to at least 30 per cent by 2022-23.
Current SituationHowever, a declining female labour force participation rate (LFPR) despite increasing levels of education and declining fertility rates has emerged as a worrying trend.The current .... Read More
ObjectivesUnder POSHAN Abhiyaan, achieve the following outcomes by 2022-23, compared to the baseline of 2015-16 (National Family Health Survey-4):Reduce the prevalence of stunting among children to 25 per cent or less. Reduce the prevalence of underweight in children (0-6 years) to 25 per cent or less.Reduce the prevalence of anaemia .... Read More
ObjectivesOn the strong platform of Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY):Attain a coverage of at least 75 per cent of the population with publicly financed health insurance (covering most secondary and tertiary care procedures) by 2022-23.Reduce by 50 per cent the proportion of households facing catastrophic health expenditure from .... Read More
ObjectivesAchieve a doctor-population ratio of at least 1:1400 (WHO norm 1:1000) and nurse-population ratio of at least 1:500 (WHO norm 1:400) by 2022-23.Ensure availability of paramedics and doctors as per Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS) norms in high priority districts by 2020 (National Health Policy, 2017).Deploy mid-level providers (MLPs) to .... Read More
ObjectivesUnder Ayushman Bharat, scale-up a new vision for comprehensive primary health care across the country, built on the platform of health and wellness centres (HWCs), to:Provide quality ambulatory services for an inclusive package of diagnostic, curative, rehabilitative and palliative care, close to the people.Deliver preventive and promotion services, and action .... Read More
ObjectivesTo revamp radically the public and preventive health system in the nation through the following strategic interventions:Mobilize public health action through an integrated, inter-sectoral and pan-stakeholder approach, targeted at communities and individuals as well as grassroots organizations, aimed at creating an unprecedented people-led movement for health and wellness.Operationalize vital enablers .... Read More
ObjectivesFor harnessing the demographic advantage that it enjoys, India needs to build the capacity and infrastructure for skilling/reskilling/up-skilling existing and new entrants to the labour force. The goals to be met until 2022-23 are as follows:Increase the proportion of formally skilled labour from the current 5.4 per cent of India’s .... Read More
ObjectivesThere cannot be a quality education system without quality teachers. Therefore, a thorough revamp of the entire ecosystem of teacher education both at the school and college level is necessary. In this context, the objectives for 2022-23 include:Enforcing minimum teacher standards through rigorous teacher eligibility tests and criteria for the .... Read More
ObjectivesIncrease the gross enrolment ratio (GER) in higher education from 25 per cent in 2016-17 to 35 per cent by 2022-23.Make higher education more inclusive for the most vulnerable groups.Adopt accreditation as a mandatory quality assurance framework and have multiple highly reputed accreditation agencies for facilitating the process.Create an enabling .... Read More
ObjectivesUniversal access and retention:Hundred per cent enrolment and retention at elementary education and secondary education levels; achieve zero dropouts until Class X.Equitable participation by all society segments, in terms of attendance, retention and years of schooling to ensure maximum social inclusion.Creating a robust framework for tracking individual students across their .... Read More
ObjectiveThe objective is to maintain a clean, green and healthy environment with peoples’ participation to support higher and inclusive economic growth through sustainable utilization of available natural resources. The 2022-23 goals include the following.Air pollution:Bringing down PM2.5 levels in Indian cities to less than 50.Creating 175 GW of renewable energy .... Read More
ObjectivesBy 2022-23, India’s water resources management strategy should facilitate water security to ensure adequate availability of water for life, agriculture, economic development, ecology and environment. This broader vision can be achieved by attaining the following sectoral goals:Provide adequate (rural: 40 litres per capita per day (lpcd); urban 135 lpcd) and .... Read More
ObjectivesThe key objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission include:Making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by October 2, 2019.Carrying out extensive information, education and communication (IEC) and behaviour change campaigns to change the attitude of people regarding healthy sanitation practices.Ensuring scientific solid and liquid waste management.Augmenting the capacity of local bodies.Creating .... Read More
ObjectivesLeverage the ‘Smart Cities’ concept in select urban clusters to:Drive job creation and economic growth.Significantly improve efficiencies in service delivery.Leverage technology for inclusive, sustainable and participatory development by 2022-23.Current SituationThe Government of India has so far selected 99 cities with an outlay of INR 2.04 lakh crore. These cities have .... Read More
ObjectivesGiven the relevance of digital connectivity to economic growth and the need to eliminate the digital divide by 2022-23, India should aim to achieve:Physical digital connectivity across all states, districts and gram panchayats (GPs).Delivery of government services digitally by 2022-23.Hundred per cent basic digital literacy across the country to be .... Read More
ObjectivesAchieve multi-modal movement of cargo on par with global logistics standards.Reduce the logistics cost to less than 10 per cent of GDP from the current level of 14 per cent.Expand the logistics market to USD215 billion by 2020 from the current level of USD160 billion.Improve logistics skilling and increase jobs .... Read More
Double the share of freight transported by coastal shipping and inland waterways from 6 per cent in 2016-171 to 12 per cent by 2025.
Increase the port handling capacity to 2,500 million metric tonnes (MMT) by 2022-23.
Reduce the turnaround time at major ports from about 3.44 days (2016-17) to 1-2 days .... Read More
ObjectivesEnhance the affordability of flying to enable an increase in domestic ticket sales from 103.75 million in 2016-171 to 300 million by 2022.Double air cargo handled from about 3.3 million tonnes in 2017-18 to about 6.5 million tonnes.Expand the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) industry from USD 1.8 billion in .... Read More
ObjectivesBy 2022-23, India should have a rail network that is not only efficient, reliable and safe, but is also cost-effective and accessible, both with respect to the movement of people and goods. This requires achieving the following objectives:Augment the capacity of existing railway infrastructure.Increase the speed of infrastructure creation from .... Read More
ObjectivesIncreasing the coverage and quality of roads and highways is critical to enhancing connectivity and internal and external trade. By 2022-23, we should achieve the following objectives:Increase connectivity by expanding the road network:Achieve the Bharatmala Phase-I target by completing 24,800 km by 2021-22, including 2,000 km of coastal and port .... Read More
ObjectivesThe government’s on-going energy sector policies aim “to provide access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy”. At the convergence of its domestic goals and the global development agenda, it also intends to hit the following milestones on the way –Make available 24x7 power to all by 2019.Achieve 175 GW .... Read More
ObjectivesDouble the area explored from 10 per cent of obvious geological potential (OGP) area to 20 per cent.Accelerate the growth of the mining sector from 3 per cent in 2017-18 to 14 per cent, with an average growth of 8.5 per cent during 2018-23. Increase the job contribution (direct, associated .... Read More
ObjectivesIncrease India’s share in global international tourist arrivals from 1.18 per cent to 3 per cent.Increase the number of foreign tourist arrivals from 8.8 million to 12 million.Double the number of domestic tourist visits, from 1,614 million in 2016 to 3,200 million visits.Current SituationIndia moved up 12 places from 52nd .... Read More
ObjectivesProvide every family with a pucca house, with a water connection, toilet facilities, and 24x7 electricity supply and access.Build 2.95 core housing units in rural areas and 1.2 crore housing units in urban areas.Current SituationThe government has made it clear that one of its key priorities is to ensure safe .... Read More
Objectives(i) Banking for the unbankedBank accounts: Ensuring universal access to bank accounts, which are a gateway to all financial services.Digital payment services: Providing access to digital payment services and increasing its penetration.(ii) Securing the unsecuredInsurance and social security: Ensuring universal coverage of insurance for life, accidents, etc., and of pensions .... Read More
ObjectivesTransform the rural economy through the creation of modern rural infrastructure and an integrated value chain system.Leverage the value chain to boost India’s exports of food products.Create occupational diversification and qualityWay ForwardWarehousing, pack-houses, ripening chambers, and cold storages, including those set up at the village level, should be accorded full-fledged .... Read More
ObjectivesCreate a policy environment that enables income security for farmers, whilst maintaining India’s food security.Encourage the participation of the private sector in agricultural development to transition from agriculture to robust agri-business systems.Promote through government policies the emergence of ‘agripreneurs’ so that even small and marginal farmers can capture a higher .... Read More
ObjectivesModernize agricultural technology, increase productivity, efficiency and crop diversification.Generate income and employment through a paradigm shift that ensures food security while maximizing value addition in agriculture.Current SituationThe existing yield levels of a majority of crops remains much lower than the world average.Close to 53 per cent of cropped area is .... Read More
ObjectivesDouble the current growth rate of the manufacturing sector by 2022.Promote in a planned manner the adoption of the latest technology advancements, referred to as ‘Industry 4.0’, that will have a defining role in shaping the manufacturing sector in 2022.Current SituationIndia is the fifth largest manufacturer in the world. The .... Read More
ObjectivesIndia should be among the top 50 countries in the Global Innovation Index by 2022-23.Five of our scientific research institutions should be amongst the top 100 in the world.India should aim to spend at least 2 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) on R&D with equal contributions from the .... Read More
ObjectivesComplete codification of central labour laws into four codes by 2019. Increase female labour force participation to at least 30 per cent by 2022-23.Disseminate publicly available data, collected through rigorous household and enterprise surveys and innovative use of administrative data on a quarterly basis by 2022-23.Encourage increased formalization of the .... Read More
ObjectivesSteadily accelerate the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate to achieve a target of about 8 per cent during 2018-23 (note that this target has been set to catalyse policy action and does not represent a forecast). This will raise the economy’s size in real terms from USD 2.7 trillion .... Read More
The term ‘Mineral’ means a class of substances occurring in nature, of definite chemical composition and usually, a characteristic crystal structure, but sometimes also includes rocks formed by these substances. A mineral is an element or chemical compound that has been formed as a result of geological processes. Mineral resources .... Read More
The overarching goal of health care for the tribal people should be to bridge the current gap in the health status of the tribal people and to bring the health coverage and outcome indicators at par with the state's average latest by the year 2027.
The sub-goals should be:
To create a .... Read More
Inland Water Resources Inland water resources include both fresh and brackish water bodies. While freshwater is naturally occurring water with low concentration of salt, brackish water has a salt concentration varying between that of freshwater and marine water. Inland Water Resources of the country are categorized as: rivers and canals; .... Read More
Concept of Forest Accounts in SEEA-CFForests are at the centre of many environmental and economic issues including climate change, biodiversity protection, tourism, soil erosion, stability of water cycles etc. Forest accounts provide a framework in this context to capture the economic contribution of forests and their connection with the economy.
Recognizing .... Read More
Tribal health in India suffers from following ten burdens:
Communicable diseases, maternal and child health problems and malnutrition continues to prevaili
Non-communicable diseases including mental stress and addiction are rapidly increasing;
Injuries due to accidents, snake and animal bites and violence in conflict situations;
Difficult natural conditions arising due to geographic terrain, distance and .... Read More
As per the present norms, tribal and hilly areas should have one Health Sub-centre (HSC) per 3000 population, one Primary Health Center (PHC) per 20,000 population, and a Community Health Centre (CHC) per 80,000 population.
Data on 'required versus shortfall' of Sub-centres, PHCs and CHCs in tribal areas of 18 states .... Read More
Daily Nutrient Intake
The third round of the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) survey completed in 2008-09 found that the mean intake of most foodstuffs and nutrients by tribal people continued to be below the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) by the Indian Council of Medical Research and had in fact reduced .... Read More
CSO has recently published EnviStats-India 2018: Supplement on Environmental Accounts. The data given in this report is based on the information sourced from different Ministries/Departments/Organisations of Central Governments.
Environment-Economic AccountingThe notion of man’s dependence on nature is deeply ingrained in the Indian philosophy. But with the global focus on economic development, .... Read More
The problem of lower health status of tribal people is global. A recent international review revealed that health and social outcomes compared on 9 indicators were poorer for tribal people than for the rest of the population in most of the countries. However, it is not nature's inviolable law. Life .... Read More
over 104 million tribal people live in India. Spread across 705 tribes, they account for 8.6% of the country's population. Cognizant of the distinct socio-cultural structures and way of life in these communities, the Government of India has laid down the three landmark policy expressions -- the Constitution of India, .... Read More
In spite of reservations, a vast proportion of reserved category applicants do not find a place via the government recruitments. Hence, we must think about alternative strategies.Individuals should use Their Reserved Category Status Only OnceOne strategy may be to try and spread the benefits of reservations as widely as possible .... Read More
Even as governments want more and more sections of society to benefit from reservations in public sector jobs, the truth is the size of the cake itself is becoming smaller. As a recent report published in the Indian Express, annual Central government recruitment (including in the Railways) has fallen from .... Read More
The three-member commission, headed by Major Gen (retd) S R Sinho, was instituted by the UPA government and had submitted its report in July 2010. The Sinho Commission report of 2010, which the Centre has been citing as the basis for its legislation to grant 10 per cent reservation to .... Read More
It has been their longstanding demand for quotas in proportion to their population. According to the 1931 caste census, OBCs constituted 52 per cent of undivided India’s population. The government has not yet made public the caste census carried out in 2011-12.Number of OBCsAs per Census 2011, the population of .... Read More
The amendment was challenged on two major issues:i) Whether it violated the “basic structure”ii) Whether Articles 15(4) and 15(5) were mutually contradictory — and hence, Article 15(5) was ultra vires of the ConstitutionThe RulingIn March 2008, a five-judge Constitution Bench upheld the law providing 27 per cent quota for OBCs .... Read More
Amendment of Constitution
Part XX of the Constitution deals with its amendment
Under Article 368(2), Parliament can amend the Constitution by passing a Bill in “each House by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House .... Read More
The term “backward class of citizens” has been generally understood, and also defined by the Supreme Court in the Mandal case (Indra Sawhney vs Union of India, 1992) judgment, to include the SCs, STs, and Socially and Educationally Backward Castes (SEdBCs). These are not exceptions, but special provisions to ensure .... Read More
Fundamental Rights of Educational Institutions: Creating reservation at private-unaided educational institutions would eschew the freedoms under Article 19(1)(g). Curbing fundamental rights for facilitating professional and degree education is an overstretch from Article 21A’s mandate of literacy and primary schooling.
Socially Weaker Sections will not be covered by the New Quota: An .... Read More
Constitutional promise is explicitly for social exclusion and discrimination
Articles 330-342 under Part 16 of the Constitution outline special provisions for certain classes. The Constitution identifies only four such classes — SCs, STs, Backward Classes and Anglo Indians. The Constitutional promise is explicitly for social exclusion and discrimination.
While providing quotas for .... Read More
The 124th Constitution Amendment Bill, 2019 to award 10 per cent reservation to economically weaker sections was passed by the Parliament in January, 2019. With this, the great reservation debate has once again started. What does India need – more jobs or more quota? Who needs reservation in jobs and .... Read More
The Citizenship (Amendment) bill proceeds on the assumption that religious
minorities in both Pakistan and Bangladesh are, in effect, unwanted citizens that look to India as the country of refuge.
The North-eastern part of India is now seized with one issue. It is seldom that the region rises together on a shared .... Read More
Considering India’s growing economy and enhanced military capabilities,
Indian leaders are pushing for their country’s due place in global councils.
- Chandrakant Singh
In international realms, term ‘global order’ broadly refers to the distribution of power and authority among the political actors on the global stage.
In the late 19th and early 20th .... Read More
If loan waiver was the solution to agrarian distress, why hasn’t it prevented
farm incomes from decelerating and farmers from committing suicide?
Farmers are always in distress when prices of their produce are subdued. The response of governments has been to sharply hike minimum support prices (MSP) of crops or declare .... Read More
India space mission has altogether a different objective. Rather than focussing
on military aspect. India has focussed on space exploration.
– Noopur Joshi
China recently became the third country to land a probe on the Moon on January 2, 2019. But its operation is more significant issue since the probe landed on .... Read More
Patents are integral to innovation, but in agricultural
biotechnology farmers' interest can't be ignored.
Biotechnology has revolutionised agriculture by helping farmers produce a greater variety of crops in larger quantities. However, recently, three different courts adjudicated upon matters that greatly impact farmers and indigenous communities.
Delhi High Court’s Ruling
In April 2018, the High .... Read More
UBI is a fine idea, but can it be at the cost of expenditure
on health, education or rural infrastructure?
universal basic income (UBI), a welfare benefit that guarantees a certain threshold sum of money for everyone regardless of whether they work or not, is the next big political-economy idea fast catching .... Read More
Deal Reached in Katowice is Welcome but not Enough
The 24th Session of the of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 24) was held in Katowice, Poland on 02nd– 15th December 2018. The conference was a significant one which focused on three .... Read More
We Need to Go Beyond Conventional Measures
The WHO report, titled ‘Air Pollution and Child Health: Prescribing Clean Air’, released recently, said air pollution was responsible for the deaths of over one lakh children under age 5 in India in 2016, and over 7,000 children between ages 5 and 14. In .... Read More
Unelected Bodies like RBI are Vital for DemocracyThe RBI is the central bank for India. Central Bank in any country plays a critical role in the governance, RBI being no exception. The main objective of a central bank is to secure monetary stability. The objectives of the Reserve Bank of .... Read More
Great Gains & Great DangersExtinctions are seldom cause for celebration. Humans are wiping out species at a frightening rate, whether hunting them into history or, far more threateningly, damaging the habitats on which they depend. But occasionally, the destruction is warranted. Smallpox was officially eradicated in 1980, and no one .... Read More
We need to protect lives of humans but not at the cost of wildlifeIncreasing human and animal population, shrinking forests etc. have made the human animal conflict inevitable. But it’s not as though there are no solutions. Recent killing of six-year old tigress Avni, accused of killing 13 human beings, .... Read More
Impact rivers, their waters and the creatures that inhabit themAs Government inaugurated India’s first multi-modal terminal on the Ganga river in Varanasi on November 12, the spotlight is back on how navigation of arguably India’s greatest river would impact it. The development marks the commencement of the government’s Jal Marg .... Read More
What is Globalisation?
According to American economist Edward S. Herman, “Globalisation is the expansion across international borders of management and process. At the same time, it is a condition of facilities and economic relation which is constantly expanding and its simultaneously changing.”
In concept, globalization is a complex, economic, political, cultural and .... Read More
After a very long time, privatisation has re-entered the policy-making lexicon in India. A flurry of news reports has informed us that several public sector undertakings (PSUs) will be put on the block for privatisation. It certainly is a big departure from the last decade and a half, when successive .... Read More
What is Traditional Medical Knowledge
Traditional medical knowledge has social, cultural and scientific value and is important for many indigenous peoples and local communities. In some Asian and African countries, 80 percent of the population depend on traditional medicine, including for primary healthcare.
Traditional knowledge is generally considered as the collective heritage .... Read More
India is one of the few countries where forest cover is on the rise and forests are teeming with wildlife. It has only 2.4% of the geographical area of the world, but harbours nearly 8% of the globally known floral and faunal species. India’s sixth National Report (NR6) to the .... Read More
On 24thOctober, 2019 the Supreme Court upheld the definition of Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) calculation as stipulated by the Department of Telecom (DoT). It has ordered telecom companies to pay up to Rs 92,641 crore dues to the DoT within three months calculated on the basis of the new definition .... Read More
It has been 22 years since talks between NSCN-IM and the government officially began in 1997. In August 2015, the Union government signed a framework agreement to seek a final solution with NSCN-IM. The seven Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) joined the talks later by signing a ‘Deed of Commitment’ .... Read More
On 24 May 2019 at least 22 students were killed and several others injured in a fire at a coaching centre in Surat, Gujarat. On 12 February, 2019 massive fire at a hotel in Delhi claimed 17 innocent lives. These are glaring examples of lawlessness and fire safety mismanagement that .... Read More
Food processing industry is a sunrise sector in India,which is expanding at a rate of 15% annually. Food processing refers to various techniques and operations by which raw foodstuffs are transformed into food that are suitable for consumption (value addition), cooking, or storage (to increase shelf life).
Input and production are .... Read More
During colonial times, India was infested with frequent droughts and famines that resulted in widespread hunger and mortality. It forced post independent India to adopt self-sufficiency in food grain production at high priorityand ushered measures such as Green revolution, which was largely successful asevident by record food grain production of .... Read More
As fires rage in the Amazon more than 15,000km away, Indians may feel that they’re unaffected. Nothing could be farther from the truth. India, where millions rely on natural resources and on the monsoon for sustenance, is especially vulnerable.
If India is to successfully tackle climate change—both in terms of mitigation .... Read More
—By Manisha Kukreti
Recently, India’s Nuclear doctrine was once again under debate over Defence Minister’s remark in Pokhran that India’s adherence to the principle of ‘no first use’ of nuclear weapons is not sacrosanct and its future course would depend on the exigencies of the time.
Genesis of the Nuclear Doctrine
Post the .... Read More
India has witnessed the occurrence of quite a few natural disasters in a very short period of time- Cyclone Fani in Odisha, floods in Kerala, Bihar and Assam. Rs. 12,000 crore and Rs. 21,000 crore are the losses incurred by Odisha due to the cyclone and Kerala from the 2018 .... Read More
There is a palpable sense of anticipation on the front of India’s foreign policy. As the new government have begun its term at the office, there is a current vigour as to where the India’s foreign policy will take its course under the leadership of the Prime Minister and our .... Read More
On 9 July the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) warned 52 companies of serious action, including Amazon, Flipkart, and Patanjali Ayurved Limited, for not specifying a timeline or a plan to collect the plastic waste that results from their business activities.
The theme of the World Environment Day 2018 was ‘Beat .... Read More
Urabanisation is the process of growth of urban centers, due to migration of people from rural areas and inherent rise in the population of cities. According to census 2011, India is urbanising at a fast pace and level of urbanisation in India is around 32%. Moreover, it is expected that .... Read More
India is the fastest growing economy with the second largest population in the world and has a significant stake in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) revolution. Recognising AI’s potential to transform economies and the need for India to strategise its approach, NITI Aayog has formulated a National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence.The .... Read More
Some experts see India as a restless nation, with calls for change coming from almost every corner of society. Thus, economic growth accompanied with equally valuable improvements in quality of human life seems to be the most indispensable need of the hour.
The present Indian dream of becoming $5 trillion economy .... Read More
The world watched over with rapt attention when ‘Greta Thunberg’, a sixteen-year-old environmentalist represented her generation at the UN Climate Action Summit, 2019 held in New York. She stressed on the world leaders to face the reality of ‘climate crisis’ at hand and highlighted their apathy towards the same. Back .... Read More
On 12th September, the European Central Bank reduced deposit interest rates and approved bond purchases and a fresh stimulus package to boost euro zone growth. The step taken by the ECB highlights the contingent global slowdown that is staring at the world economies and which is characterized by lower growth .... Read More
Mahatma Gandhi while upholding the value of cleanliness once said: “Sanitation is more important than independence” and “Everyone must be his own Scavenger”. To materialise his words, on 2nd October 2014, Mahatma Gandhi’s Birth Anniversary, Prime Minister of India, launched the nation-wide cleanliness campaign, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBM) or Clean .... Read More
Earthquake is amongst the most terrifying of all natural phenomena. Striking without warning and seemingly coming out of nowhere, it challenges our inherent assumptions about the stability of the very planet we live upon. Any shaking of the earth, whether lasting for minutes or only for seconds, seems eternal to .... Read More
On Independence Day this year, Prime Minister Narendra Modi called for national integration through several “one nation” initiatives such as, tax regime, singular mobility card and an electricity grid. One such initiative, “One Nation, One Ration Card”, is meant to enable any resident from any part of the country to .... Read More
Balance of payments refers to economic transactions of a country with the rest of the world within a given period of time i.e. in a year. It has two components as follows:
Current Account refers to difference between exports and imports of goods, services and transfers. It also factors in income .... Read More