Disaster Management

Disaster Management is a strategic planning and procedure that is administered and employed to protect critical infrastructures or critical assets from severe damage when natural or human made calamities and catastrophic event occur. The International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies defines disaster management as the organisation and management .... Read More
Environmental Pollution and Degradation

Water Pollution The World Health Organisation (WHO) says that polluted water is water whose composition has been changed to the extent that it is unusable. In other words, it is toxic water that cannot be drunk or used for essential purposes like agriculture, and which also causes diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, .... Read More
Sustainable Development

The term sustainability was first used in 1987 in Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development) report- Our Common Future. Sustainable development is defined as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It calls for concerted .... Read More

Biological Diversity Act 2002 The Biodiversity Act - 2002 primarily addresses issues of conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of biological resources in the country, issue related to access to genetic resources and associated knowledge and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from utilization of biological resources to the country .... Read More
EIA and Allied Measures to Counter Global Warming

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. UNEP defines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool used to identify the environmental, social and .... Read More
Climate Change

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) In June 2008, India announced its National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture .... Read More
Ecology & Environment Class Notes Special- 4

National Forest Policy India’s forests are currently governed by the National Forest Policy, 1988. The principal aim of National Forest Policy, 1988 is to ensure environmental stability and maintenance of ecological balance including atmospheric equilibrium which are vital for sustenance of all life forms, human, animal and plant. Objectives of National Forest Policy Maintenance .... Read More
Indian Economy - Indian Trade (Class Notes Special-3)

India has emerged as the fastest growing major economy in the world and is expected to be one of the top three economic powers in the world over the next 10-15 years, backed by its robust democracy and strong partnerships. Domestic Trade India’s GDP (at constant 2011-12 prices) was estimated at Rs. .... Read More
Indian Economy - Infrastructure(Class Notes Special-3)

Infrastructure in India Infrastructure sector is a key driver for the Indian economy. The sector is highly responsible for propelling India’s overall development and enjoys intense focus from Government for initiating policies that would ensure time-bound creation of world class infrastructure in the country. Need To Improve Connectivity: In the coming decade, .... Read More
Indian Economy - Budget(Class Notes Special-3)

Budget Article 112 of the constitution defines budget as ‘Annual Financial Statement’ of State. A government budget is a year-long country’s financial report explaining item-wise calculations of future revenue and expenditure. Objective of Budget Reallocation of Resources – It helps to distribute resources keeping in view the social and economic advantages of the .... Read More
Indian Economy - Government Debt (Class Notes Special-3)

Objectives of Government Debt The main objective of public debt management is to ensure that the government's financing needs and its payment obligations are met at the lowest possible cost over the medium to long run, consistent with a prudent degree of risk. Security Market in India 1.Commodity Indices A commodity index is an .... Read More
Indian Economy - Banking and Finance (Class Notes Special-3)

Banking Objectives of Banking Safeguard Deposits: Bank serves the main purpose of accepting deposits from public and safeguarding it. It guarantees the safety of funds to customers for depositing their money in their accounts. Provide Loans: It advances loan to customers at both short-term and long-term basis as per their needs. Bank provides .... Read More
Indian Economy - Fiscal Policy (Class Notes Special-3)

Revenue and Taxation Objectives Economic Development:One of the important objectives of taxation is economic development. Economic development of any country is largely conditioned by the growth of capital formation as capital formation is the kingpin of economic development. Full Employment: Since the level of employment depends on effective demand, a country desirous of .... Read More
Indian Economy - Poverty, Inclusive Growth and Human Resource Development (Class Notes Special-3)

Poverty As per UN, “Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.”For example, it means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society,it means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having .... Read More
Indian Economy - GDP and Inflation (Class Notes Special-3)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total money value of final goods and services produced in the economic territories of a country in a given year. GDP stands for the total value of goods and services produced inside the territory of India irrespective of whom produced it – .... Read More
Indian Economy - Sectors of Economy (Class Notes Special-3)

Agriculture : Primary Sector of Indian Economy Primary sector makes direct use of natural resources. The primary sector is an economic description, concerned with the extraction of raw materials. This sector includes agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, mining etc. The well being of other sectors depends upon the wellbeing of primary .... Read More
Indian Polity & Governance (Class Notes Special-2)

Constitution Annulment of Article 370 and Article 35 (A) The Central government annulled the special status granted to Jammu and Kashmir under article 370 of the constitution in August 2019 via presidential order. This action also impacts the provisions under article 35 (A) of the constitution. With the annulment of special status .... Read More
Key Highlights of Union Budget 2021-22

“Faith is the bird that feels the light and sings when the dawn is still dark.” – Rabindranath Tagore Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman presented the first ever digital Union Budget. The key highlights of the Union Budget 2021-22 are as follows – There are 6 pillars of .... Read More
Economy Survey 2020-21

The Economic Survey of India is an annual document of the Ministry of Finance. The Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance presents the Survey in the Parliament every year, just before the Union Budget. It is prepared under the guidance of the Chief Economic Adviser of India. Union Minister for .... Read More
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