Article 370 is the first Article of Part XXI of the Constitution which is titled ‘Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions’. However Article 370(3) permits deletion by a Presidential Order. Article 370 was discriminatory as it restricted parliament’s power to extend central law in the state. On subjects of Defence, External Affairs and Communications — it needed “consultation” while for extending laws on remaining subjects, “concurrence” of the state government was mandatory.
NASA observed in its report, that Earth’s long term warming trend has continued with 2018 declared to be the warmest year in recorded history. This comes in the backdrop of forewarning by scientists who state that Earth has already undergone an increase of 1 degree Celsius compared to 1950 levels. This shows that though the Montreal Protocol has been widely successful in phasing out Ozone depleting substances, it has not been able to arrest the trend of global warming.
It is estimated that air pollution in India affected its GDP by 8% (approx) due to losses in labour output and monetarily cost a loss of about Rs 4 lakh crore. This decreasing air quality is also in violation of Right to life (Article 21) as “Right to Clean Air” is included within the ambit of this fundamental right.
62 million tonnes of waste is generated annually in the country at present, out of which 5.6 million tonnes is plastic waste, 0.17 million tonnes is biomedical waste, hazardous waste generation is 7.90 million tonnes per annum and 15 lakh tonnes is e-waste. Only about 75-80% of the municipal waste gets collected and only 22-28 % of this waste is processed and treated. There is tremendous scope for enhancing resource efficiency with the move towards recycling and circular economy.
According to State of Global Air Report 2019, in 2017, annual PM2.5 (particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers) exposures were highest in South Asia, where Nepal (100 µg/m3), India (91 µg/m3), Bangladesh (61 µg/m3), and Pakistan (58 µg/m3) had the highest exposures. Airpocalypse III, is the report released by Greenpeace, which analyzed air pollution data of 313 cities and towns for the year 2017.Of these 241 (77%) had PM10 (particles that are 10 micrometers or less) levels beyond the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).
According to a Niti Aayog report on Water Management Index; India is currently suffering from the worst water crisis in its history with the country ranked at 120 among 122 countries in the quality of water. By 2020, it said, 21 major cities of India will run out of water.The report said 600 million people are living in high water stress conditions, 75% of households do not have drinking water on premises and 84% rural households do not have access to piped water.
If these sectors are combined and world economy is seen as a whole, the impact of AI is going to alter the world economic growth significantly as substantiated below:
- Increase in Economic Output: A 2018 report by McKinsey Global Institute says that Artificial Intelligence has the potential to incrementally add 16 percent by 2030 to current global economic output. The major contributors to this figure are the automation of labor and innovations in products and services.