Judaism is the world’s oldest great monotheism and the parent religion of both Christianity and Islam. The name Judai derives from the Latin Judaeus and the Hebrew Yahudi, means the descendent of Judah, who was the fourth son of Jacob. Judaism recognises one god, sometimes called Elohim or Jehovah. The basic prayer of Judaism is called the Shema. The basis of Judaism is belief in the living God, who is transcendent, omnipotent and just who reveals himself to mankind. Jud­aism is strictly monotheistic. God is the creator and absolute ruler of the universe. The emphasis in Judaism is on ethical behaviour as the true worship of God.

Judaism elaborates the system of Laws and rituals, such as dietary regulations. Jews have an ordained clergy and observe the Sabbath, which runs from the sunset of Friday to the sunset of Saturday and is observed with services of prayer in local synagogues.

The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism and is the place to which Jews turn during prayer. Due to religious restrictions on entering the most sacred areas of the Temple Mount (see following section), the Western Wall, a retaining wall of the Temple Mount and remnant of the Second Temple structure, is considered by some rabbinical authorities the holiest accessible site for Jews to pray.

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