Civil Services Chronicle February 2019

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G-20 Summit 2018

Calls for WTO Reform .... Read More
Climate Change Rulebook

Deal Reached in Katowice is Welcome but not Enough The 24th Session of the of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 24) was held in Katowice, Poland on 02nd– 15th December 2018. The conference was a significant one which focused on three .... Read More
Growth

ObjectivesSteadily accelerate the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate to achieve a target of about 8 per cent during 2018-23 (note that this target has been set to catalyse policy action and does not represent a forecast). This will raise the economy’s size in real terms from USD 2.7 trillion .... Read More
Employment and Labour Reforms

ObjectivesComplete codification of central labour laws into four codes by 2019. Increase female labour force participation to at least 30 per cent by 2022-23.Disseminate publicly available data, collected through rigorous household and enterprise surveys and innovative use of administrative data on a quarterly basis by 2022-23.Encourage increased formalization of the .... Read More
Technology and Innovation

ObjectivesIndia should be among the top 50 countries in the Global Innovation Index by 2022-23.Five of our scientific research institutions should be amongst the top 100 in the world.India should aim to spend at least 2 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) on R&D with equal contributions from the .... Read More
Industry

ObjectivesDouble the current growth rate of the manufacturing sector by 2022.Promote in a planned manner the adoption of the latest technology advancements, referred to as ‘Industry 4.0’, that will have a defining role in shaping the manufacturing sector in 2022.Current SituationIndia is the fifth largest manufacturer in the world. The .... Read More
Doubling Farmers’ Income (I): Modernizing Agriculture

ObjectivesModernize agricultural technology, increase productivity, efficiency and crop diversification.Generate income and employment through a paradigm shift that ensures food security while maximizing value addition in agriculture.Current SituationThe existing yield levels of a majority of crops remains much lower than the world average.Close to 53 per cent of cropped area is .... Read More
Doubling Farmers’ Income (II): Policy & Governance

ObjectivesCreate a policy environment that enables income security for farmers, whilst maintaining India’s food security.Encourage the participation of the private sector in agricultural development to transition from agriculture to robust agri-business systems.Promote through government policies the emergence of ‘agripreneurs’ so that even small and marginal farmers can capture a higher .... Read More
Doubling Farmers’ Income (III): Value Chain & Rural Infrastructure

ObjectivesTransform the rural economy through the creation of modern rural infrastructure and an integrated value chain system.Leverage the value chain to boost India’s exports of food products.Create occupational diversification and qualityWay ForwardWarehousing, pack-houses, ripening chambers, and cold storages, including those set up at the village level, should be accorded full-fledged .... Read More
Financial Inclusion

Objectives(i) Banking for the unbankedBank accounts: Ensuring universal access to bank accounts, which are a gateway to all financial services.Digital payment services: Providing access to digital payment services and increasing its penetration.(ii) Securing the unsecuredInsurance and social security: Ensuring universal coverage of insurance for life, accidents, etc., and of pensions .... Read More
Housing For All

ObjectivesProvide every family with a pucca house, with a water connection, toilet facilities, and 24x7 electricity supply and access.Build 2.95 core housing units in rural areas and 1.2 crore housing units in urban areas.Current SituationThe government has made it clear that one of its key priorities is to ensure safe .... Read More
Travel, Tourism and Hospitality

ObjectivesIncrease India’s share in global international tourist arrivals from 1.18 per cent to 3 per cent.Increase the number of foreign tourist arrivals from 8.8 million to 12 million.Double the number of domestic tourist visits, from 1,614 million in 2016 to 3,200 million visits.Current SituationIndia moved up 12 places from 52nd .... Read More
Minerals

ObjectivesDouble the area explored from 10 per cent of obvious geological potential (OGP) area to 20 per cent.Accelerate the growth of the mining sector from 3 per cent in 2017-18 to 14 per cent, with an average growth of 8.5 per cent during 2018-23. Increase the job contribution (direct, associated .... Read More
Land

CSO has recently published EnviStats-India 2018: Supplement on Environmental Accounts. The data given in this report is based on the information sourced from different Ministries/Departments/Organisations of Central Governments. Environment-Economic AccountingThe notion of man’s dependence on nature is deeply ingrained in the Indian philosophy. But with the global focus on economic development, .... Read More
Forest

Concept of Forest Accounts in SEEA-CFForests are at the centre of many environmental and economic issues including climate change, biodiversity protection, tourism, soil erosion, stability of water cycles etc. Forest accounts provide a framework in this context to capture the economic contribution of forests and their connection with the economy. Recognizing .... Read More
Water

Inland Water Resources Inland water resources include both fresh and brackish water bodies. While freshwater is naturally occurring water with low concentration of salt, brackish water has a salt concentration varying between that of freshwater and marine water. Inland Water Resources of the country are categorized as: rivers and canals; .... Read More
Minerals

The term ‘Mineral’ means a class of substances occurring in nature, of definite chemical composition and usually, a characteristic crystal structure, but sometimes also includes rocks formed by these substances. A mineral is an element or chemical compound that has been formed as a result of geological processes. Mineral resources .... Read More
Energy

ObjectivesThe government’s on-going energy sector policies aim “to provide access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy”. At the convergence of its domestic goals and the global development agenda, it also intends to hit the following milestones on the way –Make available 24x7 power to all by 2019.Achieve 175 GW .... Read More
Surface Transport

ObjectivesIncreasing the coverage and quality of roads and highways is critical to enhancing connectivity and internal and external trade. By 2022-23, we should achieve the following objectives:Increase connectivity by expanding the road network:Achieve the Bharatmala Phase-I target by completing 24,800 km by 2021-22, including 2,000 km of coastal and port .... Read More
Railways

ObjectivesBy 2022-23, India should have a rail network that is not only efficient, reliable and safe, but is also cost-effective and accessible, both with respect to the movement of people and goods. This requires achieving the following objectives:Augment the capacity of existing railway infrastructure.Increase the speed of infrastructure creation from .... Read More
Civil Aviation

ObjectivesEnhance the affordability of flying to enable an increase in domestic ticket sales from 103.75 million in 2016-171 to 300 million by 2022.Double air cargo handled from about 3.3 million tonnes in 2017-18 to about 6.5 million tonnes.Expand the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) industry from USD 1.8 billion in .... Read More
Ports, Shipping and Inland Waterways

Objectives Double the share of freight transported by coastal shipping and inland waterways from 6 per cent in 2016-171 to 12 per cent by 2025. Increase the port handling capacity to 2,500 million metric tonnes (MMT) by 2022-23. Reduce the turnaround time at major ports from about 3.44 days (2016-17) to 1-2 days .... Read More
Logistics

ObjectivesAchieve multi-modal movement of cargo on par with global logistics standards.Reduce the logistics cost to less than 10 per cent of GDP from the current level of 14 per cent.Expand the logistics market to USD215 billion by 2020 from the current level of USD160 billion.Improve logistics skilling and increase jobs .... Read More
Digital Connectivity

ObjectivesGiven the relevance of digital connectivity to economic growth and the need to eliminate the digital divide by 2022-23, India should aim to achieve:Physical digital connectivity across all states, districts and gram panchayats (GPs).Delivery of government services digitally by 2022-23.Hundred per cent basic digital literacy across the country to be .... Read More
Smart Cities for Urban Transformation

ObjectivesLeverage the ‘Smart Cities’ concept in select urban clusters to:Drive job creation and economic growth.Significantly improve efficiencies in service delivery.Leverage technology for inclusive, sustainable and participatory development by 2022-23.Current SituationThe Government of India has so far selected 99 cities with an outlay of INR 2.04 lakh crore. These cities have .... Read More
Swachh Bharat Mission

ObjectivesThe key objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission include:Making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by October 2, 2019.Carrying out extensive information, education and communication (IEC) and behaviour change campaigns to change the attitude of people regarding healthy sanitation practices.Ensuring scientific solid and liquid waste management.Augmenting the capacity of local bodies.Creating .... Read More
Water Resources

ObjectivesBy 2022-23, India’s water resources management strategy should facilitate water security to ensure adequate availability of water for life, agriculture, economic development, ecology and environment. This broader vision can be achieved by attaining the following sectoral goals:Provide adequate (rural: 40 litres per capita per day (lpcd); urban 135 lpcd) and .... Read More
Sustainable Environment

ObjectiveThe objective is to maintain a clean, green and healthy environment with peoples’ participation to support higher and inclusive economic growth through sustainable utilization of available natural resources. The 2022-23 goals include the following.Air pollution:Bringing down PM2.5 levels in Indian cities to less than 50.Creating 175 GW of renewable energy .... Read More
School Education

ObjectivesUniversal access and retention:Hundred per cent enrolment and retention at elementary education and secondary education levels; achieve zero dropouts until Class X.Equitable participation by all society segments, in terms of attendance, retention and years of schooling to ensure maximum social inclusion.Creating a robust framework for tracking individual students across their .... Read More
Higher Education

ObjectivesIncrease the gross enrolment ratio (GER) in higher education from 25 per cent in 2016-17 to 35 per cent by 2022-23.Make higher education more inclusive for the most vulnerable groups.Adopt accreditation as a mandatory quality assurance framework and have multiple highly reputed accreditation agencies for facilitating the process.Create an enabling .... Read More
Teacher Education and Training

ObjectivesThere cannot be a quality education system without quality teachers. Therefore, a thorough revamp of the entire ecosystem of teacher education both at the school and college level is necessary. In this context, the objectives for 2022-23 include:Enforcing minimum teacher standards through rigorous teacher eligibility tests and criteria for the .... Read More
Skill Development

ObjectivesFor harnessing the demographic advantage that it enjoys, India needs to build the capacity and infrastructure for skilling/reskilling/up-skilling existing and new entrants to the labour force. The goals to be met until 2022-23 are as follows:Increase the proportion of formally skilled labour from the current 5.4 per cent of India’s .... Read More
Public Health Management and Action

ObjectivesTo revamp radically the public and preventive health system in the nation through the following strategic interventions:Mobilize public health action through an integrated, inter-sectoral and pan-stakeholder approach, targeted at communities and individuals as well as grassroots organizations, aimed at creating an unprecedented people-led movement for health and wellness.Operationalize vital enablers .... Read More
Comprehensive Primary Health Care

ObjectivesUnder Ayushman Bharat, scale-up a new vision for comprehensive primary health care across the country, built on the platform of health and wellness centres (HWCs), to:Provide quality ambulatory services for an inclusive package of diagnostic, curative, rehabilitative and palliative care, close to the people.Deliver preventive and promotion services, and action .... Read More
Human Resources for Health

ObjectivesAchieve a doctor-population ratio of at least 1:1400 (WHO norm 1:1000) and nurse-population ratio of at least 1:500 (WHO norm 1:400) by 2022-23.Ensure availability of paramedics and doctors as per Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS) norms in high priority districts by 2020 (National Health Policy, 2017).Deploy mid-level providers (MLPs) to .... Read More
Universal Health Coverage

ObjectivesOn the strong platform of Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY):Attain a coverage of at least 75 per cent of the population with publicly financed health insurance (covering most secondary and tertiary care procedures) by 2022-23.Reduce by 50 per cent the proportion of households facing catastrophic health expenditure from .... Read More
Nutrition

ObjectivesUnder POSHAN Abhiyaan, achieve the following outcomes by 2022-23, compared to the baseline of 2015-16 (National Family Health Survey-4):Reduce the prevalence of stunting among children to 25 per cent or less. Reduce the prevalence of underweight in children (0-6 years) to 25 per cent or less.Reduce the prevalence of anaemia .... Read More
Gender

ObjectiveTo create an enabling environment, sans institutional and structural barriers.To enhance the female labour force participation rate to at least 30 per cent by 2022-23. Current SituationHowever, a declining female labour force participation rate (LFPR) despite increasing levels of education and declining fertility rates has emerged as a worrying trend.The current .... Read More
Senior Citizens, Persons with Disability and Transgender Persons

Senior CitizensObjectiveTo ensure a life of dignity, social security and safety for senior citizens, enabling them to actively participate in economic development and the nation building process.Way ForwardRevise the National Policy for Older Persons. The policy should cover housing, income security, pension, and access to healthcare. It should also emphasize .... Read More
Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Classes (OBCs), Other Tribal Groups and Minorities

SCs, STs, OBCs, De-Notified Tribes (DNTs), Nomadic Tribes (NTs) and Semi-Nomadic Tribes (SNTs)ObjectiveTo accelerate the socio-economic development of SCs, STs, OBCs, safai karamcharis as well as DNTs, NTs and SNTs through focused affirmative action so as to bring them on par with the rest of the population as far as .... Read More
Balanced Regional Development: Transforming Aspirational Districts

ObjectiveAchieve balanced development in India by uplifting 115 districts, currently below the national average in the areas of health and nutrition, education, agriculture and water resources, financial inclusion and skill development, and basic infrastructure.Current SituationThe Aspirational Districts Programme (ADP) was launched on January 5, 2018.A list of 49 target indicators .... Read More
The North-East Regi

ObjectivesThe North-East Region (NER) should:Have adequate road, rail and air connectivity, waterways, internet connectivity and financial inclusion. This will form the platform upon which suitable interventions for all sectors where the NER has a comparative advantage (for e.g., tourism, hydropower generation, handicrafts, organic agriculture, etc.) can be effectively implemented.By 2022-23, .... Read More
Legal, Judicial and Police Reforms

ObjectiveTo ensure the safety and security of citizens and ensure access to effective legal systems and speedy delivery of justice.Current SituationLegal and judicial reforms are urgently needed to address the massive pendency and capacity issues in Indian courts, which impede access to justice.Several archaic and defunct laws have already been .... Read More
Civil Services Reforms

ObjectiveTo put in place a reformed system of recruitment, training and performance evaluation of the civil service to ensure more effective and efficient delivery of public services to achieve the development goals envisaged in New India 2022.Current SituationThe Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was constituted in 2005 and in 2009, .... Read More
Modernizing City Governance For Urban Transformation

ObjectiveTo transform our cities into economically vibrant and environmentally sustainable habitats that provide equitable access to basic infrastructure, public services and opportunities to all citizens and platforms for democratic participation.Current SituationIndia is urbanizing at a fast pace and it is expected that by 2050, close to 50 per cent of .... Read More
Optimizing the Use of Land Resources

ObjectivesEnsuring that land markets function smoothly, through efficient allocation of land across uses, provision of secure property rights and titles, and clear and consistent regulations around the operations, leasing and sale of land are critical for India to achieve and sustain high economic growth.To this end, the following goals have .... Read More
Data Led Governance and Policy Making

ObjectivesEvidence based policy making should be made integral to the overall governance structure in New India, 2022-23. To achieve this, timely generation and dissemination of robust data at all levels of governance would be a pre-requisite. This would require:Collecting data for new measurable parameters using latest technologies.Improving efficiencies in processes .... Read More
ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT

Sustainable Development


















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Biodiversity & Conservation


























Animal Diversity























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Solved Paper

Prelims