Civil Services Main Examination 2020 Psychology (Optional) Paper I


Section A

1.Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a)What are the major features do clinicians use to interpret Rorschach responses?
(b)How does prior knowledge shape encoding in memory?
(c)Describe physiological and cognitive components of emotions.
(d)Discuss the reasons why rewards may backfire and not produce their intended results for behaviour.
(e)Suggest some strategies for fostering values in Indian settings.


2.(a) What is the role of artificial intelligence in psychology? How can it be applied as an intervention in identifying different psychological abnormalities? 20
(b)Differentiate between metamemory and self-instructional learning. Elaborate your answer with suitable examples.15
(c)Define the precursors of the development of item response theory. In what ways will it help in the advancement of the area of aptitude testing?15


3.(a)Differentiate between exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. What is their significance in test construction? Elaborate your answer with suitable example. 20
(b)Explain five most important perspectives to define human behaviour.15
(c)Describe 3-stage model of memory with special emphasis on working memory. 15


4.(a)While playing cricket, Team-A got into fight with Team-B. Discuss it in the context of 'realistic group conflict theory'. How can conflict resolution strategies be used to manage and control such fights? 20
(b)How is quasi-experimental design different form experimental design? Describe different forms of quasi-experimental design with special emphasis on time series design. 15
(c)"Any sort of learning takes place with the help of suitable associations and reinforcement." Critically examine that how much cognitivists, Gestaltists and evolutionary psychologists agree with the statement. 15


Section B


5.Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:10×5=50

(a)How can a psychologist contribute to the society during COVID-19?
(b)Describe brain plasticity and factors affecting on it.
(c)Discuss the steps involved in effective communication training.
(d)How much do family and school environment contribute to intelligence?
(e)Explain six primary emotions that can be identified from facial expressions.


6.(a)Differentiate between Erikson's psychosocial and Freudian psychosexual theories. Also explain different virtues attached to each stage of psychosocial theory.20
(b)Explain the various assumptions and ways of performing regression analysis. Also compare standardized and unstandardized beta coefficients with suitable examples.15
(c)Repression is a motivated forgetting process that protects us by inhibiting anxiety-arousing memories. Explain its role in dissociative amnesia.15


7.(a)Describe different personality assessment techniques and also highlight their strengths and weaknesses.20
(b)How are physiological, neural and cognitive changes associated with ageing? Explain.15
(c)How can grounded theory approach help to explore layperson's definition of happiness?15


8.(a)Discuss in detail about different attitude rating scales. How can we measure intergroup prejudice among students in the class using Likert scale and how can their behaviour be rectified through moral education?20
(b)Give details of facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving. Answer the question by citing suitable example. 15
(c)What are the different rules of language? Critically analyze 'critical period hypothesis.'15