News Crux Defence/Military Exercises

Maritime Partnership Exercise (MPX)

On 10th and 11th March 2023, INS Sahyadri, a guided missile frigate of the Indian Navy, participated in a two-day Maritime Partnership Exercise (MPX) with two warships from the French Navy in the Arabian Sea.

The aims of the exercise are:

  • Strengthening cooperation and interoperability between the Indian and French navies through joint training and operations.
  • Enhancing the tactical proficiency of both navies through a range of drills and exercises at sea.
  • Demonstrating the advanced capabilities of the Indian and French warships in detecting and neutralizing air, surface, and sub-surface threats.
  • Reinforcing the strategic partnership between them and promoting regional stability and security in the Arabian Sea.

INS Sahyadri is a guided missile frigate of the Indian Navy that is equipped with advanced weapons and sensors. This makes it capable of detecting and neutralizing air, surface, and sub-surface threats, enhancing India's naval capabilities.

Current News Ecology & Environment Disaster Management

The Landslide Atlas of India

On March 11, 2023, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) released The Landslide Atlas of India.

The Atlas is based on an all-India database created by the Hyderabad-based National Remote Sensing Centre that includes three types of landslide inventory: seasonal, event-based, and route-wise, covering the period from 1998 to 2022.

  • Deaths Due to Landslides: Landslides rank third globally in terms of deaths among natural disasters.
  • Sudden heavy rains due to climate change are increasing landslides, particularly in the Himalayan region, where 73% of landslides are attributed to heavy rains and reduced water-absorbing capacity of soil.
  • Impact of Landslides: Landslides can cause buildings, roads, bridges, and other structures to collapse or become damaged, resulting in injuries, deaths, and financial losses.
  • The risk analysis is based on the density of human and livestock populations in affected areas.
  • Increasing Risks: The risk is increasing due to climate change and human activities such as deforestation and unplanned urbanization.
  • Heavy rains reduced water-absorbing capacity of soil, and specific events such as earthquakes or slope cuts can trigger landslides.
  • Occurrence of Landslides:The maximum number of landslides between 1988 and 2022 were recorded in Mizoram (12,385), followed by Uttarakhand, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Manipur, and Maharashtra.

Landslides are the movement of rock, earth, or debris down a slope. This movement can be caused by a variety of factors, including natural events like heavy rainfall, earthquakes, and erosion, as well as human activities like construction and mining, and even underwater, where they are called submarine landslides.

News Crux Ecology & Environment

Zero Waste Mandatory for Buildings

The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in India is set to send a directive to all State governments to make net zero waste and liquid discharge treatment mandatory for upcoming housing societies and commercial complexes.

  • About: It is a convergence of programs like Swachch Bharat, NAMASTE, and AMRUT.
  • Aim: To achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and modernize sewage disposal system.
  • Manhole to Machine-hole: The scheme aims to replace manual scavenging with a mechanized sewage system (Machine-hole system).
  • Untreated Wastewater: This move aims to address the issue of untreated wastewater and promote a shift towards sustainable and eco-friendly waste management practices in the country.
  • India generates 72,368 million liters per day of urban wastewater, with only 28% treated.

NAMASTE (National Action Plan for Mechanised Sanitation Ecosystem) is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJE) aimed at eliminating manual scavenging and promoting mechanized sanitation.

AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation) is a scheme launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs to provide basic infrastructure and services in urban areas with a focus on water supply, sewerage, and urban transport.