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Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh: A Nationalist and Reformer


On 14th September 2021, Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh State University in Aligarh (UP).

About Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh

  • Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh was born into the ruling Jat family of Mursan estate in Hathras in 1886.
  • Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh was a freedom fighter, revolutionary, writer, social reformer, and internationalist.
  • Raja gave up his own residence in Mathura to be converted into a technical school named Prem Mahavidyalaya in 1909.
  • On December 1, 1915, he proclaimed the first Provisional Government of India outside India at the historic Bagh-e-Babur in Kabul. He declared himself president, and his fiery fellow revolutionary Maulana Barkatullah of Bhopal, prime minister, of the Provisional Government.
  • Mahendra Pratap Singh, who was an alumnus of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later became the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), had given 3.04 acres of land to the university on lease for constructing a school in 1929.
  • In 1929, Mahendra Pratap launched the ‘World Federation’ in Berlin.
  • He was nominated for the 1932 Nobel Peace Prize by the Swedish doctor N A Nilsson, who was a member of the Commission of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
  • After almost 32 years of exile, Mahendra Pratap Singh finally returned to India in 1946.
  • He entered Lok Sabha as an Independent candidate from Mathura in 1957.

News Crux Important Days/Weeks

14 September: Hindi Diwas


  • Hindi Diwas is celebrated every year to promote the Hindi language. In order to promote Hindi, it is advised to use Hindi in place of English in all government offices.
  • The Constituent Assembly of India accepted Hindi, written in Devanagari script, as the official language of India on September 14, 1949.
  • Officially, the first Hindi Day was celebrated on September 14, 1953.
  • The reason behind adopting Hindi as one of the official languages was to simplify administration in a nation with multiple languages. Efforts were made by several writers, poets and activists for the adoption of Hindi as the official language.
  • Rajbhasha Kirti Puraskar and Rajbhasha Gaurav Puraskar awards are also given to ministries, departments, public sector units (PSUs), nationalised banks and citizens on Hindi Diwas for their contribution and promotion of Hindi.

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NIOS wins UNESCO King Sejong Literacy Prize 2021


  • The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) of India won the prestigious UNESCO King Sejong Literacy Prize 2021 for 'enabling education of persons with disabilities through technology-enabled inclusive learning materials, with a specific focus on Indian Sign language-based content'.
  • Every year, the UNESCO International Literacy Prizes focus on a specific theme. This year, the spotlight was on inclusive distance and digital literacy learning.
  • Along with NIOS, this year's UNESCO International Literacy Prizes were awarded to five other outstanding literacy programmes from Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa on the occasion of International Literacy Day (8 September).

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Women’s Prize for Fiction 2021


  • British author Susanna Clarke won the Women’s Prize for Fiction 2021 for her novel ‘Piranesi’.
  • The Women's Prize for Fiction is one of the United Kingdom's most prestigious literary prizes.
  • It is awarded annually to a female author of any nationality for the best original full-length novel written in English and published in the United Kingdom in the preceding year.