Current Affairs - PIB News

Green Term Ahead Market (GTAM) In Electricity

  • On 1st September the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy launched pan-India Green Term Ahead Market (GTAM) in electricity.
  • It will accelerate renewable penetration pan-India also compliment Government of India’s target of 175 GW RE Capacity by 2022.

Benefits of this Initiative

  • The introduction of GTAM platform would lessen the burden on RE-rich States and incentivize them to develop RE capacity beyond their own Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPO).
  • This would promote RE merchant capacity addition and help in achieving RE capacity addition targets of the country.
  • GTAM platform will lead to increase in number of participants in renewable energy
  • It will benefit buyers of RE through competitive prices and transparent and flexible procurement. It will also benefit RE sellers by providing access to pan- India market.

Mechanism of GTAM

  • Transactions through GTAM will be bilateral in nature with clear identification of corresponding buyers and sellers, there will not be any difficulty in accounting for RPO.
  • GTAM contracts will be segregated into Solar RPO & Non-Solar RPO as RPO targets are also segregated.
  • Further, within the two segments GTAM contracts will have Green Intraday, Day Ahead Contingency, Daily and Weekly Contracts
  • Green Intraday Contract & Day Ahead Contingency Contract – Bidding will take place on a 15-minute time-block wise MW basis.
  • Daily & Weekly Contracts – Bidding will take place on MWh basis. Both buyers and sellers can submit the bid, however the seller will provide profile in terms of 15-minute time block wise quantity (MW) along with the price (Rs/MWh). After the contract gets executed scheduling will take place as per the profile. In case of multiple buyers, the profile will get allocated on a pro-rata basis.
  • Price discovery will take place on a continuous basis i.e. price time priority basis. Subsequently, looking at the market conditions open auction can be introduced for daily & weekly contracts.
  • Energy scheduled through GTAM contract shall be considered as deemed RPO compliance of the buyer.

One-Step Laser-Based Fabrication To Prevent Rusting

  • Scientists from International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI) have brought out a single-step method to develop super-hydrophobic functional surfaces that have ability to repel water. Such surfaces do not allow water to cling long enough to evaporate and leave behind residue.
  • This indigenous laser processing allows the fabrication of fast and flexible super-hydrophobic surfaces on a wide range of materials.

What is New?

  • By adjusting the laser processing parameters, in this method, it is possible to accurately control the structure pattern and precisely tailor the contact angle and the wetting properties of a variety of substrates. It is a robust, simple, fast, precise, and eco-friendly process and can be used to effectively fabricate robust super-hydrophobic surfaces and has high potential for large-scale application.

The Technique

  • In the single-step process developed by ARCI scientists, comprises surface modification using a femtosecond laser (lasers emitting light pulses with durations between a few femtosecondsand hundreds of femtoseconds, i.e. 10-15 of a second), non-thermal, and eco-friendly.

What is the Current Practice?

  • Currently, super-hydrophobic properties are achieved by developing rough surfaces and low surface free energy chemical coatings which are mostly two-step processes. The first step is to construct a rough surface by physical or chemical methods, and the second step involves chemical coatings of low surface free energy chemicals.
  • Drawbacks: However, these super-hydrophobic coating surfaces have many limitations, such as the use of fluorinated toxic reagent and poor mechanical stability.


  • The efficient and straight forward strategy will encourage the scalability of the process both in terms of reducing the cycle time and applying the developed hierarchical micro-scale and nano-scale structures over large areas for practical applications in the prevention of corrosion, bacterial growth, and avoidance of repeated cleaning.
  • Eco-friendly self-cleaning surfaces that can protect biomedical and other applications from rusting and bacterial growth may soon be a reality with an ultrafast laser-based process that scientists have developed for fabrication of surfaces without use of coatings or additional surface treatment.

“Hampi- Inspired By The Past; Going Into The Future”

  • The Ministry of Tourism organised their latest webinar titled ‘Hampi- Inspired by the past; Going into the future’ on 29th August 2020 under Dekho Apna DeshWebinar series.
  • Dekho Apna Desh Webinar Series is an effort to showcase India’s rich diversity under Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat programme.
  • A UNESCO World Heritage site, Hampi’s spectacular setting is dominated by river Tungabhadra, craggy hill ranges and open plains with widespread physical remains. 
  • The sophistication of the varied urban, royal and sacred systems is evident from the more than 1600 surviving remains that include forts, riverside features, royal and sacred complexes, temples, shrines, pillared halls, mandapas, memorial structures, gateways, defence check posts, stables, water structures, etc.

Hampi’s History

  • Its name is derived from Pampa which is the old name of the Tungabhadra River on whose banks the city is built.
  • Hampi was the last capital of the last great Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar. 
  • In 1336 CE, the Vijayanagara Empire arose from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom. It grew into one of the famed Hindu empires of South India that ruled for over 200 years.
  • The Vijayanagara rulers fostered developments in intellectual pursuits and the arts, maintained a strong military and fought many wars with sultanates to its north and east. They invested in roads, waterworks, agriculture, religious buildings and public infrastructure. 

Multi-Religious and Multi-Ethnic Site

  • The site used to be multi-religious and multi-ethnic; it included Hindu and Jain monuments next to each other. 

Style of Architecture

  • The buildings predominantly followed South Indian Hindu arts and architecture dating to the Aihole-Pattadakal styles, but the Hampi builders also used elements of Indo-Islamic architecture in the Lotus Mahal, the public bath and the elephant stables.


  • Vijayanagara Empire flourished as it controlled cotton and spice trade routes of Southern India.  Medival historians refer to Hampi as an important center of trade. 

Fall of Glory

  • However, the glory of Vijayanagara was short lived.  With the death of Krishnadevaraya, the combined armies of the five muslim kingdoms- Bidar, Golconda, Ahmednagar and Berar destroyed this might empire in 1565.

Noted Sites at Hampi

  • VirupakshaTemple: Important attractions of Hampi, include the 15th Century Virupaksha temple which is one of the oldest monuments of the town.  The main shrine is dedicated to Virupaksha, a form of Lord Shiva. 
  • Hemkunta Hill, south of the Virupaksha temple contains early ruins, Jain temples and a monolithic sculpture of Lord Narasimha, a form of Lord Vishnu.  At the eastern end, there is the large Nandi in stone; on the southern side is the larger than life Ganesha.  Large single stone carvings seem to have been the fashion of the day in Hampi, for there is a large image of Narasimha (6.7m high), the half lion half man incarnation of God, as well as a huge linga.
  • Vittal temple built in the 16th Century, and now a World Heritage monument.  The carvings on this temple give an insight into the architectural splendor achieved by the artisans of VijayanagaraEmpire. The columns of the temple are so balanced that they have a musical quality. 
  • Queen’s bath, Hazara Rama temple, Lotus Palace, Elephant quarters are other attractions.

Mythological Sites

  • Anegundi village is also believed to be part of the mythical city of Kishkinda, home to the mighty Indian monkey God Hanuman. 
  • Anjunadri, Hanuman’s birthplace lies a few kilometers away from Anegundi.
  • Matanga Hill: As Rama and Lakshman continued their search for Sita, along the way they found this Matanga Hill where Sugriva lived with his Minister Jambavan and associate Hanuman. 

Digitally-Enabled Water Supply Infrastructure Under Jal Jeevan Mission

  • The Ministry of Jal Shakti has decided to create a smart rural water supply eco-system to measure and monitor the service delivery of the water supply in rural areas under the Jal Jeevan Mission.

Aim: Measurement and Monitoring

  • To facilitate states and Gram Panchayats or its sub-committee, Paani Samiti, an automated system for measurement and monitoring of water service delivery is necessary. This necessitates the use of modern technology for measurement and monitoring of the water service delivery and to capture and transmit service delivery data automatically for ensuring the quality of service.

Initiatives towards this Goal

  • National Jal Jeevan Mission has constituted a Technical Expert Committee to prepare a road map for measurement and monitoring of water service delivery system in rural areas.
  • The National Jal Jeevan Mission and Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology planning to conduct an ICT Grand Challenge to bring an innovative, modular, and cost-effective solution to develop a 'Smart Water Supply Measurement and Monitoring System' to be deployed at the village level.
  • The mission, in partnership with State Governments and sector partners, has started facilitating a sensor-based water supply system on a pilot basis in various villages. Gujarat has begun navigating the sensor-based rural water supply systems in 1,000 villages spread across five districts. The other States have also started pilot projects.

Brief on Jal Jeevan Mission

  • Jal Jeevan Mission being implemented in partnership with states aims at providing functional household tap connection to every rural household of the country by the year 2024.
    The programme focuses on service delivery at the household level, the supply of 55 litres per capita per day (lpcd) of water of prescribed quality on a regular and long-term basis. The mission focuses on 'service delivery', rather only on infrastructure creation.

Constitutional Provisions

  • In accordance with the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution, Gram Panchayats at the village level is to manage drinking water supply. Thus, Gram Panchayat or its sub-committee, Village Water and Sanitation Committee/ Paani Samiti are required to function as a 'local public utility' for drinking water management, water service delivery, greywater treatment, and reuse, and take care of operation and maintenance of in-village water supply infrastructure for assured drinking water supply on regular basis, collect user charges for delivery of water supply services.


  • Digitally-enabled water supply infrastructure will help in near real-time monitoring and evidence-based policymaking.
  • Digitisation of water supply infrastructure has the potential to help the Gram Panchayats as 'local public utility'.

“Chunauti”- Next Generation Start-up Challenge Contest

  • On 28th August 2020, the Ministry of Electronics & IT has launched “Chunauti”- Next Generation Start-up Challenge Contest.


  • The programme aims to identify around 300 startups working in identified areas to further boost startups and software products with special focus on Tier-II towns of India.

Focus Areas

Under this challenge the Ministry of Electronics and IT will invite startups in the following areas of work:

  • Edu-Tech, Agri-Tech & Fin-Tech Solutions for masses
  • Supply Chain, Logistics & Transportation Management
  • Infrastructure & Remote monitoring
  • Medical Healthcare, Diagnostic, Preventive & Psychological Care
  • Jobs & Skilling, Linguistic tools & technologies


  • The government has earmarked a budget of Rs. 95.03 Crore over a period of three years for this programme. It aims to provide them seed fund of uptoRs. 25 Lakh and other facilities. 

Support from Govt.

  • The startups selected through Chunauti will be provided various support from the Government through Software Technology Parks of India centers across India.
  • They will get incubation facilities, mentorship, security testing facilities, access to venture capitalist funding, industry connect as well as advisories in legal, Human Resource (HR), IPR and Patent matters.
  • Besides seed fund of uptoRs. 25 Lakh, the startups will also be provided cloud credits from leading cloud service providers.
  • Start-ups who are in the ideation stage may be selected under the pre-incubation programme & mentored for up-to six months to evolve their business plan & solution around the proposed idea.
  • Each intern (start-up under pre-incubation) will be paid Rs. 10,000/- per month upto a period of 6 months.

Cultural Heritage Of Hyderabad

  • Ministry of Tourism’s Dekho Apna Desh Webinar Series showcased “Cultural heritage of Hyderabad” on 22nd August 2020.
  • Hyderabad is popularly known as the "City of Pearls" and the "City of Nizams", and has been the centre of a vibrant historical legacy, ever since its inception by the QutubShahi dynasty. The city was later conquered by Mughal Empire and finally falling in the hands of AsafJahi dynasty.

Brief Historical Evolution

  • Muhammad QuliQutb Shah established Hyderabad in 1591 to extend the capital beyond the fortified Golconda.
  • In 1687, the city was annexed by the Mughals.
  • In 1724, Mughal governor NizamAsaf Jah I declared his sovereignty and founded the AsafJahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams.
  • Hyderabad served as the imperial capital of the AsafJahis from 1769 to 1948.
  • As capital of the princely state of Hyderabad, the city housed the British Residency and cantonment until Indian independence in 1947.

Noted Cultural Sites of Hyderabad 

  • Golconda Fort, Hyderabad-A massive fortress whose ruins stand proudly even today displaying the glory of its rich past and some untold sagas of the city's history. The place oozing charm is a must visit historical place in Hyderabad.MohammedQuli understood the need of a new City and made Bhagnagar (after the name of his beloved) with Charminar in its centre.
  • Chowmahalla Palace- Once the seat of the AsafJahi Dynasty, the Chowmahalla Palace was built in Hyderabad and is located near the famous monument, Charminar and Laad Bazar. The palace is designed very intricately and holds that Nawabi Charm in itself. Chowmahalla Palace, the seat of power of Nizams, has bagged the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Merit Award for Culture Heritage Conservation.
  • Charminar- The monument was erected when QuliQutab Shah shifted his capital from Golconda to Hyderabad. The monument got its name from its structure as it consists of four minarets.
  • Purani Haveli- One of the significant historical places in Hyderabad's golden era is today known for its remarkable exhibits of artwork and talent. It is a beautiful structure comprising great surprises for history lovers.
  • Mecca Masjid- One of the oldest and the largest mosques of India is the grandest historical places in Hyderabad was completed by Aurangazeb in 1693.The bricks used here are believed to be from Mecca, and hence the name.
  • QutubShahi Tombs- Located in the Ibrahim Bagh, QutubShahi Tombs are a group of small and big mosques and tombs built by the rulers of the Qutub Shah dynasty. The tombs are all built on a raised platform and have a dome-shaped structure. The little historical places in Hyderabad are single-storeyed while the bigger ones are double storeyed.  The site was used by the Mughal army to target Golconda Fort.  The tomb’s lower storey was used as stables for the Mughal army horses.
  • PaigahTombs- Located in the suburbs of Pisal Banda in Hyderabad, Paigah Tombs are a group of tombs of the Paigah royal family. Although now in a derelict and dilapidated state, the tombs still boast of striking architecture and marvellously carved marble panels. This historical place in Hyderabad is managed by a family of caretakers who reside in the premises.
  • Salar Jung Museum-It is an art museum established in the year 1951 and located at Dar-ul-Shifa, on the southern bank of the Musi River in the city of Hyderabad. The Salar Jung family is responsible for its collection of rare art objects from all over the world. The family is one of the most illustrious families in Deccan history, five of them having been prime-ministers in the erstwhile Nizam rule of Hyderabad-Deccan.
  • Warangal Fort- This fort appears to have existed since at least the 12th century when it was the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty. The fort has four ornamental gates, known as Kakatiya Kala Thoranam that originally formed the entrances to a now ruined great Shiva temple.
  • QutubShahiWooden Palace- This Palace is on trade route. 
  • Trade Route: The importance of trade route was also showcased as structures were built around them.  Golconda- Charminar- Pul-E-Narva connected the new capital with fort.

 Twin City of Secunderabad

  • In 1798, the Subsidiary alliance was signed between the Second Nizam and the British.  Far from the Charminar to the North, a part of the City was established as a cantonment and called Secunderabad after the name of NawabSikander Jah, the third Nizam.   The construction of European style structures started in 1908 when there was flood followed by plague in 1911.

Hyderabad is also famous for 

  • Apart from the combination old heritage structure and modern buildings, Hyderabad is also famous for lac bangles, glass bangles at Laad bazaar, Pearls and jewellery at Patharghatti, ethnic wear at laad bazaar and Patharghatti and calligraphy at Chata bazaar.  The City is famous for edible silver foil, Zardozi work, Calligraphy etc.
  • Hyderabad has been selected as a creative city in the category of gastronomy by UNESCO.

MoTA & MoRD Join Hands To Promote Sustainable Livelihood Opportunities Among Tribal Women SHGs In Rural India

On 18th August 2020, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) and the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) signed a Joint Communication for leveraging each other’s strengths to propel the rural economy and jointly promote sustainable livelihood opportunities among tribal women Self Help Groups (SHGs) under National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM). 

  • Both MoTA and RD have developed robust IT system and has developed mechanism to share data amongst themselves.  On the basis of data of Anatodya Mission provided by the Ministry of Rural Development, MoTA has done Infrastructural gap analysis of 1170000 villages with population more than 50% and States have been asked to use this data for making plans in SCA to TSS and 275(1) schemes.  
  • The present collaboration between Ministry of Rural Development and MoTA is part of such collaborative mechanism, which will go a long way in socio-economic development of STs across the country and strengthen STC mechanism. There is vast scope of expanding such mechanism with other Ministries like Agriculture, Health, Education, MSME and Food Processing to achieve real objective of STC mechanism. 

Ministry of Rural Development’s Role towards SHGs

  • The Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development has built an extensive network of women-led Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in India, including 8.9 lakh ST SHGs. The programme provides institutionalsupports, livelihood services, access to credit and market through its SHGs.

Ministry of Tribal Affairs’ Role towards STs/PVTGs

  • Similarly, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs provides grants to the States based on prefixed criteria through a number of initiatives such as Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Schemes (SCA to TSS), Grant-in-Aid under Proviso to Article 275 (1) of Constitution of Indiatothe States having notified STs, Development ofParticularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) to the States / UTshaving notified PVTGs, etc.

Why this Joint Initiative

  • Since the initiatives of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs and objectives of DAY-NRLM deeply complement each other, the Ministries have decided to come together to improve the economic opportunities available to tribal women.

What will these Ministries do?

  • To take this convergence initiativeforward, a series of activities will be carried out by both theMinistries to synergize the efforts to fetch tangibleresults.
  • Activities by Ministry of Rural Development will include:Identification and mapping of tribal women SHG members and their individual livelihood assets; mapping of common tribal community assets; development of comprehensive proposal for the economic development of PVTGs through the strengthening of their traditional livelihood and  occupations; convergence of GPDPs and CCD plan of OVTG habitations; assistance of SHGs to identify tribal households for enrolment under Van Dhan Yojana; and capacity building and credit access support to tribal communities through SHGs
  • Activities by Ministry of Tribal Affairs will include:Planning support to SRLM to finalize the State Annual Action Plan and inclusion of the plan in its Livelihood Annual Action Plan; promotion of livelihood opportunities among women identified by SRLM through avenues such as Mass Management,Outsourcing works of EMRS schools like housekeeping, cleaning and otheractivities in the EMRSs and Ashram Schools; augmenting the creation of individual as well as common livelihood assets as per beneficiaries identified by SRLM; implementing proposals for PVTG inco-ordination with the SRLM; inclusion of tribal SHGs / PG with majority of members from tribal households in Van Dhan Yojana and providing marketing support to produces fromSHGs and PGs through its marketing network.


Invisible Shield For Electromagnetic Interference

  • Scientists from Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences (CeNS), Bengaluru have fabricated a metal mesh structure instead of continuous film on desired transparent substrates to make it a transparent shield for electromagnetic interference (EMI).
  • These transparent and flexible EMI shields are made of metal meshes using the crack templating method via spray coating which is pioneered in their laboratory.
  • The CeNS team has developed a copper metal mesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet as its substrate, which exhibited a visible transmittance, a parameter of visible transparency of about 85% and sheet resistance. These transparent and flexible EMI shields made of metal mesh coatings on desired transparent substrate showed remarkably high values for total EMI shielding.

What is new?Metal Mesh is Superior to Continuous Metal Film

  • Instead of continuous film of metal (Cu) coating on any transparent substrate (glass, PET) where transparency can be compromised. In this method, the CeNS team has deposited metal mesh networks on the substrate, which covers only 7% area of substate, unlike 100% coverage of continuous film. This makes metal mesh transparent compared to continuous metal film. Metal mesh provides better electromagnetic shielding compared to same thickness of continuous metal film where transparency can be compromised. 

Uses and Advantages

  • The invisible shield can be used in various military stealth applications and can cover electromagnetic wave emitter or absorber devices without compromising their aesthetics.
  • This metal mesh can be created on any desired substrates such as acrylic, polycarbonate, glass, etc. without compromising the conductivity of the electrodes. 

“Swadeshi Microprocessor Challenge”

On 18th August 2020, Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad, Union Minister of Law & Justice, Communications and Electronics & Information Technology, launched “Swadeshi Microprocessor Challenge- Innovate Solutionsfor #Aatmanirbhar Bharat” to provide further impetus to the strong ecosystem of Start-up, innovation and research in the country.

Aim of this Initiative

  • “Swadeshi Microprocessor Challenge- Innovate Solutions for #Aatmanirbhar Bharat” seeks to invite innovators, startups and students to use these microprocessors to develop various technology products.
  • As one of the concrete steps towards realizing the ambition of self-reliance and a momentous stride towards “Atmanirbhar Bharat”, this initiative is aimed at not only meeting India’s future requirements of strategic and industrial sectors but also has the potential to mitigate the issues of security, licensing, technology obsolescence and most crucially cutting dependency on imports. The design, development & fabrication of these state-of-the-art processor variants at foundry in the country and abroad, is the successful step to leapfrog to ultimate goal of vibrant ecosystem of Electronic System Design & Manufacturing in the country.
  • Open to students at all levels and startups, the Challenge demands contestants to not only tinker with these Swadeshi Processor IPs & facilitate them with innovating the frugal solutions for societal needs but also make available the entire home-grown ecosystem around Swadeshi Processors to develop the complex designs for catering to both global and domestic requirements in near future. 

Support by the Ministry

  • Ministry of Electronics and IToffers a slew of benefits to the contestants and technology resources that include not only the internship opportunities and regular technical guidance from the best VLSI & Electronics System Design Experts in the country but also the business mentorship & funding support, facilitated by Incubation Centres. Financial support to the tune of Rs. 4.30 Crore at various stages of the Challenge for developing the hardware prototype and incubating a start-up is being offered.

Recent Achievements in this Field

  • IIT Madras and Center for Development of Advance Computing (CDAC) have developed two microprocessors named SHAKTI (32 bit) and VEGA (64 bit) respectively using Open Source Architecture under the aegis of Microprocessor Development Programme of Ministry of Electronics and IT.          

The Challenge           

  • The Challenge spread over 10 months, kick-starts with registration process at on 18th August 2020 and culminates in June 2021, with an opportunity for 100 Semi-finalists to win total Rs. 1.00 Crore of Award, 25 Finalists to win total Rs. 1.00 Crore of Award and top 10 teams entering the finale, will get the seed fund of total Rs 2.30 Crore and 12 months incubation support. Above all, participants will get an opportunity to translate their innovations around Swadeshi Processors, showcase them at a higher viewership platform and facilitate them to scale from ideation to marketplace, thereby standing a chance to contribute to the overall mission of #AtmaNirbharta of Government.

Journey Of India’s Independence Struggle Through The Galleries And Cells Of Cellular Jail

  • As India gears up to celebrate its 74thIndependence Day celebrations , the Ministry of Tourism’s DekhoApnaDesh Webinar Series presented the webinar titled “Cellular Jail : Letters , Memoirs & Memories on 10th August 2020.
  • The Webinar showcased the journey of India’s independence struggle through the galleries and cells of the Cellular jail. 
  • The lives and stories of some of the most famous political prisoners like Veer Savarkar, B.K.Dutt, Fazl-e-HaqKhairabadi, Barindra Kumar Ghose, SushilDasgupta were presented. 
  • The important contribution made by NetajiSubhas Chandra Bose in Andaman towards India’s independence also had a mention in the presentation. 

The sacrifices of following freedom fighters who had to go through the inhuman sufferings at the Cellular Jail were highlighted:

  • Veer Savarkar: In 1911, freedom fighter Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was sentenced to 50 years in the cellular jail of Andamans (also known as Kala Pani) for revolting against the Morley-Minto reforms (Indian Councils Act 1909). He was released in 1924.  He was known for his bravery and hence nicknamed ‘Veer’.
  • K. Dutt: Batukeshwar Dutt, also known as B K Dutt, was a Revolutionary Freedom Fighter. He, along with Bhagat Singh was involved in the Central Legislative Assembly Bombing Case of 1929, passed away on 20th July 1965 after an illness at the age of 54. Both Singh and Dutt were sentenced to life imprisonment and deported to the Cellular Jail in Port Blair.
  • Fazl-E-HaqKhairabadi: After the Indian Rebellion of 1857 failed, Fazl-E-Haq was covered by an amnesty and was arrested by the British authorities on 30 January 1859 at Khairabad for inciting violence. He was tried and found guilty of encouraging murder and role in the 'jihad'. He had chosen to be his own counsel and defended himself. His arguments and the way he defended his case was so convincing that the presiding magistrate was writing a judgement to exonerate him, when he confessed to giving the fatwa, declaring that he could not lie. He was sentenced for life to the prison at Kalapani (Cellular Jail) on Andaman Island, and his property was confiscated by the judicial commissioner of Awadh court.
  • Barindra Kumar Ghose: BarindraGhose was born at Croydon, near London on 5 January 1880.  Following the attempted killing of Kingsford by two revolutionaries Khudiram and Prafulla on 30 April 1908, the police intensified its investigation which led to the arrest of Barin and AurobindoGhosh on 2 May 1908, along with many of his comrades. The trial (known as the Alipore Bomb Case) initially sentenced BarinGhosh and UllaskarDatta to death. However, the sentence was reduced to life imprisonment, by DeshbandhuChittaranjan Das and Barin was deported to the Cellular Jail in Andaman in 1909 along with other convicts.
  • Sushil Dasgupta: Sushil Kumar Dasgupta (1910-1947) was born in Barishal, now in Bangladesh. He was a member of the revolutionary Yugantar Dal of Bengal, and the Putiya Mail Robbery case of 1929 took him to Medinipur prison. From there, he escaped along with fellow revolutionaries, SachinKar Gupta and Dinesh Majumdar. They were absconding for seven months. Eventually Dinesh was caught and hanged, Sushil was sent to Cellular Jail, and Sachin first to Mandalay Jail and, then, to Cellular Jail.

Contribution of Subhas Chandra Bose

  • On December 29, 1943, political control of the islands was passed to the Azad Hind government of Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose visited Port Blair to raise the tricolour flag of the Indian National Army.

Cellular Jail

  • The Cellular Jail in Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands is a prison where Indians fighting for freedom from the British were exiled and incarcerated under very inhuman conditions. Today, a national memorial, it is called cellular because it was constructed to host only individual cells for the purpose of solitary confinement.

Viper Jail

  • Prior to Cellular jail, it was the jail at Viper Island that was used by the British to inflict the worst form of torture and hardship on those who strove to free the country from the British rule.  
  • Solitary cells, lock-ups, stocks and whipping stands characterized the Viper Jail. Women were also held. The conditions at the jail were such that the place got the notorious name, "Viper Chain Gang Jail."



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