News Crux National

‘Pey Jal Survekshan’ Launched Under Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban)


  • A Pilot ‘Pey Jal Survekshan’ under Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban) has been launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).
  • Pey Jal Survekshan will be conducted in cities to ascertain equitable distribution of water, reuse of wastewater and mapping of water bodies with respect to quantity and quality of water through a challenge process.
  • As the first step, Ministry has decided to launch a pilot on Pey Jal Survekshan in 10 cities namely Agra, Badlapur, Bhubaneswar, Churu, Kochi, Madurai, Patiala, Rohtak, Surat and Tumkur.
  • Based on the learnings of the pilot, this survekshan will be extended to all the AMRUT cities.

News Crux National

Forgotten Hero: Maharaja Suheldev


  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has laid the foundation stone of Maharaja Suheldev Memorial and development work of Chittaura Lake in Bahraich (UP).
  • Maharaja Suheldev was the erstwhile ruler of Shravasti in Uttar Pradesh’s Bahraich district, who ruled in the 11th century.
  • He is known in the history for waging guerrilla warfare against Mahmud Ghazni’s colossal army.
  • King Suheldev’s guerrilla warfare against Mahmud Ghazni began with the killing of his elder brother, Malladev, while defending the Somnath Temple from the latter’s army.
  • On June 15, 1033, the armies of King Suheldev and Syed Salar Masood, nephew of Mahmud Ghazni fought a war on the banks of Chittaura Lake in Bahraich. In this battle, Suheldev's army completely destroyed Salar Masood's army. King Suheldev also killed Salar Masood.
  • The legend of Salar Masud and Suheldev is found in the Persian language Mirat-i-Masudi. It was written by Abd-ur-Rahman Chishti during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.

News Crux Ecology & Environment

Fossil Of Dickinsonia - The Earliest Animal Life Found At Bhimbetka


  • Dickinsonia, one of the world’s rarest fossils, has been discovered on the roof of Auditorium Cave in Bhimbetka rock shelter, Madhya Pradesh which dates back 570 million years.
  • Dickinsonia is an extinct genus of a basal animal, which as per the records, lived during the late Ediacaran period (also called Vendian Period, uppermost division of the Proterozoic Eon of Precambrian time and latest of the three periods of the Neoproterozoic Era, extending from approximately 635 million to 541 million years ago).
  • These fossils are known only in the form of casts and imprints in sandstone beds.
  • Dickinsonia is among the earliest animal life yet found—predating the Cambrian explosion of life, which took place 541 million years ago and marked the rise of most major animal groups still around today.
  • These are the only Dickinsonia fossils available in India, and the first such were found in South Australia.
  • This is further proof of the similar paleo-environments and confirms the assembly of Gondwanaland by the 550 Ma (Mega Annum), but not reconstructions adjusted for true polar wander.

News Crux Species In News

Giant Leatherback Turtle


  • The proposed tourism and port development projects in the Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands may threaten some of the most important nesting populations of the “Giant Leatherback Turtle.
  • They are largest of the seven species of sea turtles on the planet and also the most long-ranging Leatherbacks are found in all oceans except the Arctic and the Antarctic.
  • Within the Indian Ocean, they nest only in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Conservation Status (IUCN): Vulnerable
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, India: Schedule I (Highest Legal Protection)