70th Anniversary Of Korean War


  • After theend of the second World War, Korea was divided into two parts.The Soviet Union occupied the area north of the 38th parallel and the United States occupied the area south until 1948.
  • Two new ideologically opposite countries were established in 1948: The Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).
  • The Korean War broke out between North Korea and South Korea on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea.
  • Although hostilities ceased in 1953, there has never been a peace treaty, so technically, the Korean War has never ended.
  • North Korea wants reunification under communist rule.

Socotra Island Seized By STC


  • Yemen's Southern Transitional Council (STC) fighters have seized control of the strategic island of Socotra, which had been in the hands of pro-government forces, and have begun implementing self-rule.
  • The move deepens the crisis between the STC and the government after the failure of a power-sharing deal in areas beyond the control of Huthi rebels, who hold the capital Sanaa and much of northern Yemen.
  • The island of Socotra is a UNESCO World Heritage site, and the largest island in an archipelago chain located at the mouth of the Gulf of Aden.
  • Socotra, sometimes referred to as the “Galapagos” of the Indian Ocean, is famed worldwide for its beauty and its incredible biodiversity. 

US Sanctions Against ICC


  • US Presidenthas authorised sanctions against International Criminal Court (ICC) officials involved in investigations into possible war crimes by US troops or those of its allies.
  • The ICC, a permanent judicial body based at The Hague in the Netherlands, was created by the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (its founding and governing document), and began functioning on 1 July 2002 when the Statute came into force.
  • The forum was established as a court of last resort to prosecute offences that would otherwise go unpunished, and has jurisdiction over four main crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
  • 123 nations are States Parties to the Rome Statute and recognise the ICC’s authority; the notable exceptions being the US, China, Russia, and India.
  • Unlike the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the ICC is not a part of the United Nations system, with the UN-ICC relationship being governed by a separate agreement. The ICJ, which is among the UN’s 6 principal organs, mainly hears disputes between nations. The ICC, on the other hand, prosecutes individuals– its authority extending to offences committed in a member state or by a national of such a state.

Washington and the ICC

  • The Clinton administration (1993-2001) was involved in Rome Statute negotiations, and signed the document in 2000. However, the next president, George W. Bush in 2002 had the US “unsign” the Statute and signed into law the American Service-Members’ Protection Act to protect US nationals from the ICC’s reach.

Afghan Government-Taliban Peace Meet


  • The Afghan government and Taliban have announced that the first peace talks between the two sides will take place in the Qatari capital of Doha, where the militant group has its political office and had signed a long-awaited peace agreement with the US on February 29.

75th Anniversary Of The Victory Over Nazism


  • The world celebrates the year 2020 to mark the 75th anniversary of the Victory over Nazism during the Second World War.
  • For the first time in the history, Russia postponed its military parade traditionally held on Moscow’s Red Square on May 9 due to coronavirus pandemic and observed the event on June 24.
  • For Russia, the celebration of the 75th anniversary of the Soviet Union’s victory over Nazi Germany in the 1941-1945 Great Patriotic War is unique.
  • June 24 was the day when in 1945 the legendary historic parade of victors took place, when soldiers, who fought for Moscow and defended Leningrad, who stood their ground for Stalingrad, liberated Europe and stormed Berlin, marched on Red Square, and provincial cities throughout the Russian Federation.
  • A 75-member Tri-Service contingent from India took part in the Victory Day Parade.

‘INDIA’: Sign Of India-Uganda Friendship


  • India has built a state-of-the-art training facility for Ugandan defence forces.
  • The Indian Association Uganda (IAU), in association with the Indian Military Advisory and Training Team there, handed over a state-of-the-art military training facility to Uganda Peoples Defence Forces (UPDF).
  • The war game centre, named ‘INDIA’ has been funded by voluntary contributions from the Ugandans of Indian origin.

Diamer-Basha Dam


  • China’s state-run China Power and Pakistan army’s commercial body Frontiers Works Organisation have signed an accord to construct the Dam on the River Indus in the northern Gilgit-Baltistan region, which borders China.
  • Diamer Bhasha Dam, probably the world’s highest concertised dam, will stand at a height of 272m.
  • The Diamer-Bhasa Dam in PoK not only infringes upon India’s sovereignty but can be an ecological disaster as there are 300 earthquakes on average in a single month at the proposed site. And this is not the only challenge as the reservoir of the dam is to be constructed on top of the Central Asian faultline.
  • India had objected to the construction of the dam repeatedly as it falls under Indian territory and can cause water shortage in Ladakh and the 200-sq km reservoir of the dam could flood 100 kms of the Karakoram highway, and the villages and farms of over 35,000 people could disappear. Tens of thousands of thousand-year old rock carvings could also vanish.

Afghan Power-Sharing Deal


  • Afghan President Ashraf Ghani, and his political rival Abdullah Abdullah have signed a power-sharing agreement, which ended months of political discord triggered by last year’s disputed presidential election.
  • According to the deal, Ghani will stay as the president while Abdullah will helm the High Council of National Reconciliation (HCNR) with executive authority and his team will have a 50 per cent share in the cabinet.
  • The HCNR has been mandated to lead future peace talks, including with the Taliban.
  • Ghani was declared the winner of Afghanistan’s 2019 presidential polls in September by country’s Election Commission, but his challenger, Abdullah, refused to accept the results and proclaimed victory for himself. After months of political uncertainty, Ghani was sworn in as the Afghan president on March 9, but Abdullah also declared himself the president the same day by holding his own oath-taking ceremony.

German Challenge To Judiciary In The European Union


  • Recently, Germany’s constitutional court ruled that the ECJ’s (European Court of Justice) 2018 ruling was “ultra vires”, meaning beyond the latter’s legal authority.
  • In 2018, the ECJ had ruled that a EUR 2 trillion bond-buying scheme of the European Central Bank (ECB), aimed at reinvigorating the EU economy after the multi-year European debt crisis, was legal as per EU law.
  • The European Court of Justice (ECJ), a supranational institution, is a part Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), and is the European Union’s Supreme Court in matters of EU law.
  • Founded in 1952 after the Treaty of Paris, the Luxembourg-based court ensures that EU law is interpreted and applied the same in every EU country, and ensures that countries and EU institutions abide by EU law. It settles legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions.
  • In terms of hierarchy, the national courts of member countries are understood to be below the ECJ in matters of EU law.

US Bill To Delist Chinese Companies


  • The US Senate has passed a bill to delist Chinese companies from American stock exchanges.
  • The legislation requires companies to certify that they are not owned or controlled by a foreign government.
  • They would be required to submit to an audit that can be reviewed by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which has been objected to by China.

UNSC Resolution 2518 (2020)


  • The United Nations Security Council has passed Resolution 2518 to safeguard its peacekeepers.
  • The resolution asks host countries to prosecute those behind attacks against peacekeepers.

Global Military Expenditure


  • Total global military expenditure rose to $1917 billion in 2019, according to new data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
  • The total for 2019 represents an increase of 3.6 per cent from 2018 and the largest annual growth in spending since 2010.
  • The five largest spenders in 2019, which accounted for 62 per cent of expenditure, were the United States, China, India, Russia and Saudi Arabia.
  • This is the first time that two Asian states have featured among the top three military spenders.

China Renames Islands/ Geographical Features In South China Sea


  • China has unilaterally renamed 80 islands and other geographical features in the South China Sea on which are claimed by neighbouring countries.
  • This time the focus of its acquisitory attention are the two disputed archipelagos of the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands in the middle of the South China Sea waters, between the territory of Vietnam and the Philippines. With this unilateral action China drew criticism from neighbouring countries who have also laid claim to the same territory.
  • There has been an ongoing territorial dispute between China, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia concerning the ownership of the Spratly Islands archipelago and nearby geographical features like corals reefs, cays, etc.
  • The Paracel Islands dispute is slightly more complex. This archipelago is a collection of 130 islands and coral reefs and is located in the South China Sea, almost equidistant from China and Vietnam. Beijing says that references to the Paracel Islands as a part of China sovereign territory can be found in 14th century writings from the Song Dynasty. Vietnam on the other hand, says that historical texts from at least the 15th century show that the islands were a part of its territory.

New Reform Measures Of Saudi Arabia


  • Saudi Arabia has abolished death sentence on individuals who committed crimes while still minors. Instead, the individual will receive a prison sentence of no longer than 10 years in a juvenile detention facility. Capital punishment for crimes committed by people under the age of 18 runs contrary to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Saudi Arabia has ratified.
  • It has also abolishedflogging as punishment. The punishment will instead be replaced by prison time or fines.

Noor: Iran’s First Military Satellite


  • Iran has launched the nation’s first military satellite “Noor” into space.
  • S. officials have long feared that Iran’s pursuit of developing satellite technology is a cover for ballistic missile activity. 
  • The latest incident comes a week after Iranian fast boats harassed U.S. Navy ships in the Persian Gulf following which US Presidentwarned that the US would destroy Iranian gunboats that harass American ships at sea.

US Ammunition For India


  • The United States has announced the sale of Harpoon air-launched anti-ship missiles and Mark 54 lightweight torpedoes to India in order to enhance India’s deterrent capabilities against “regional threats” and also to strengthen its homeland defence.
  • The sale of 10 AGM-84L Harpoon Block II air-launched missiles, 16 MK 54 All Up Round Lightweight Torpedoes and three MK 54 Exercise Torpedoes are estimated to cost USD 155 million.

Operation Sanjeevani


  • Indian Air Force (IAF) with the assistance of Indian army has conducted Operation Sanjeevani to supply essential medicines and hospital consumables to Maldives.

Operation Decisive Storm


  • Operation Decisive Storm has declared ceasefire in Yemen for 2 weeks.
  • Operation Decisive Storm is a Saudi-Arabia led military intervention in Yemen which began in 2015 to restore legitimacy of the legally chosen leader of Yemen.
  • It is being carried out with the support of nine countries - Sudan, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Senegal. All Gulf countries except Oman are supporting the initiative.

Pitch Black 2020


  • Pitch Black is a multilateral air combat training exercise of Australia.
  • Pitch Black 2020 scheduled from July 27 to August 14 has been cancelled due to the COVID-19 situation.
  • In the last edition of Pitch Black in 2018, the Indian Air Force for the first time deployed fighter aircraft.
  • The bilateral naval exercise between Australia and India is known as AUSINDEX.

Integrated Project For Source Sustainability And Climate Resilient Rain-Fed Agriculture In Himachal Pradesh


  • The Government of India, Government of Himachal Pradesh and the World Bank signed a US$80 million loan agreement to improve water management practices and increase agricultural productivity in selected Gram Panchayats (Village Councils) in Himachal Pradesh, a mountain state richly endowed with natural resources.

Key Features

  • The Integrated Project for Source Sustainability and Climate Resilient Rain-Fed Agriculture in Himachal Pradesh will be implemented in 428 Gram Panchayats in 10 districts benefiting over 400,000 smallholder farmers, women and pastoral communities.
  • The project will improve upstream water sources in forests, pastures and grasslands and ensure sufficient water is available for sustainable agriculture both in Himachal Pradesh and in downstream states.
  • The investment in downstream areas will augment the use of irrigation and help farmers shift from low-value cereal production to climate-resilient crop varieties and to higher-value fruit and vegetable production.
  • The US$80 million loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) has a final maturity of 14.5 years including a grace period of five years.

Myanmar President’s Visit Marked By Signing Of 10 Agreements


  • India and Myanmar signed 10 agreements, including four aimed at boosting development of Rakhine state to facilitate the return of Rohingya refugees, during President U Win Myint’s visit to the country.

Key Features

  • The two sides also announced the launch of a bus service between Imphal in Manipur and Mandalay in Myanmar from April 7 as part of efforts to improve connectivity and people-to-people contacts. Private operators on both sides have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to launch the service.
  • Among the agreements, four MoUs are specific to Rakhine state and cover the construction of facilities such as an incinerator, seed storage houses and water supply systems, solar power systems for five townships, and construction of two roads and preschools.
  • Other MoUs cover cooperation in petroleum products, communications, and conservation of tigers and other wildlife.

Female Labour-force Participation In India Drops To 24.8% In 2020


  • According to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) India study, India is the only country among the 153 surveyed countries where the economic gender gap is larger than the political gap.

Key Features

  • The study found that the female labour-force participation in India has declined from 34% in 2006 to 24.8% in 2020 and said that raising women’s participation in the labour force to the same level as men can boost India’s GDP by 27%.
  • Gender stereotypes and lack of infrastructure has traditionally sidelined women from core manufacturing functions. As a result, not many are able to reach leadership roles.
  • Companies need to ensure policies and procedures are made to adapt to various life changes in their employees, including maternity, changing care needs, dual career couples and continuity
  • Globally, 38.7% of employed women are working in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, but only 13.8% of landholders are women.
  • According to the study, it is the need of the hour that public policy and corporate policies incorporate various gender related barriers in India to ensure effective solutions.

INDIA-ICELAND: MOU ON SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT


  • India and Iceland signed a Memorandum of Understanding in the field of fisheries. 
  • The salient features of the MoU are:
  • Creation of facilities for exchange of scientists and technical experts and their proper placement, especially in areas of estimating Total Allowable Catches in off shore and deep sea areas;
  • Provision of training to fisheries professionals from key fisheries institutions in the various management aspects on areas of modern fisheries management and fish processing.
  • Exchange of scientific literature research findings and other information.
  • Exchange of experts / expertise to study the prospects of fishing.  Processing and marketing of products from high seas fisheries for entrepreneurship development.

India-Brazil: Important Pacts


  • Brazilian President JM Bolsonaro was the chief guest for Republic Day, 2020. During his visit India and Brazil signed 13 agreements.
  • Investment Cooperation and Facilitation Treaty is the first agreement signed by India on resolving bilateral disputes post India adopting the new draft template for investment treaty in 2015. As per the new draft, a new investor state dispute settlement mechanism that required foreign investors to exhaust local remedies before going for international arbitration was proposed.
  • Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty which is an agreement between two or more countries for the purpose of gathering and exchanging information in an effort to enforce public or criminal laws was also signed.
  • A decision to resolve ‘Brazil’s objection to support given by India to its sugar-cane growers (earlier taken to WTO)’ bilaterally.
  • Other important agreements include – MoU on Bio-energy Co-operation, Early Childhood, Traditional Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy etc.   

UN Chief Issues 7 Point ‘Call On Action’ On Human Rights


  • UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres on 23rd Feb., 2020 issued a ‘call of action’ to countries, businesses and all people to help renew and revive human rights across the globe, laying out a seven-point plan amid concerns about climate change, conflict and repression.
  • The appeal was made in the latest session of Human Rights Council in Geneva. His seven-point plan involves linking human rights to issues like sustainable development, crisis prevention, gender equality, the development of the digital age, and freedom of expression and civil society, among other things. 

Raisina Dialogue, 2020


  • It is a geo-political event in a form of multilateral conference committed to addressing the most challenging issues facing the global community. It is organized by ORF (Observer Research Foundation) and Ministry of External Affairs.
  • The theme of 5th Raisina Dialogue, 2020 – ‘‘21@20: Navigating the Alpha Century’’.
  • The three-day conclave from 14thJanuary- 16th January, brought together 700 international participants in New Delhi, out of which 40 per cent of the speakers were women, emphasizing India’s commitment to gender equality.
  • Raisina hill is a metonym used for the seat of Government of India. It includes important government offices along with the Presidential Palace or Rashtrapati Bhavan.

Global Refugee Forum


  • The first-ever Global Refugee Forum was held in Geneva with more than 770 pledges of  support, covering areas such as protection, employment, and education, for refugees and the communities which have taken them in. 
  • The Forum was a key element of the ‘Global Compact on Refugees’, which the international community signed in December 2018. It calls for Global Refugee Forums to be held every four years. 
  • The Forum revealed a “decisive shift” towards long-term action to assist the more than 25.9 million people worldwide who have fled their homelands due to conflict, persecution or violence. 
  • A stock-taking meeting will take place in two years, and the second Global Refugee Forum is scheduled for late 2023. 

Global Compact on Refugees

  • On 17 December 2018, the United Nations General Assembly affirmed the Global Compact on Refugees, after two years of extensive consultations led by UNHCR with Member States, international organizations, refugees, civil society, the private sector, and experts.
  • The Global Compact on Refugees is a framework for more predictable and equitable responsibility-sharing, recognizing that a sustainable solution to refugee situations cannot be achieved without international cooperation.
  • It provides a blueprint for governments, international organizations, and other stakeholders to ensure that host communities get the support they need and that refugees can lead productive lives.
  • It constitutes a unique opportunity to transform the way the world responds to refugee situations, benefiting both refugees and the communities that host them.

Its four key objectives are to:

  • Ease the pressures on host countries;
  • Enhance refugee self-reliance;
  • Expand access to third-country solutions;
  • Support conditions in countries of origin for return in safety and dignity.

Eight West African Nations Rename Common Currency To Eco


  • Eight West African countries have agreed to change the name of their common currency to ‘Eco’ and severed their earlier currency CFA Franc's links to former colonial ruler France.
  • Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo currently use the currency. All the countries are former French colonies with the exception of Guinea-Bissau.

China-Russia-Iran Trilateral Naval Exercise


  • China, Russia and Iran carried out a trilateral naval exercise in the Gulf of Oman, the first such move by the three countries in the volatile Middle East amid heightened tensions in the region after the Trump administration withdrew from a landmark nuclear pact with Tehran.
  • The Gulf of Oman borders Iran and Pakistan on the north, Oman on the south, the United Arab Emirates on the west and faces the Gujarat coast.
  • The Gulf of Oman is only a short distance away from the Strait of Hormuz, which has been a site of contention over the passage of oil tankers between Iran and some Western nations.

Saudi Arabia: First Arab Nation To Take Over The G20 Presidency


  • Saudi Arabia became the first Arab nation to take over the G20 Presidency on December 1, 2019.
  • It has taken over from Japan and it will host the G20 Summit in its capital, Riyadh on November 21 and 22, 2020.
  • The G20 is an informal group of 19 countries (including India) and the European Union, with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Chennai –Vladivostok Maritime Route


  • India and Russia agreed to open a maritime route between the ports of Chennai and Vladivostok to ensure connectivity between the two countries.

SpaceCom: A New Pentagon Command


  • SpaceCom is a new command of Pentagon (United States’ Department of Defense), dedicated to warfare in space.
  • Air Force General John Raymond, will lead the new command.

Motihari-Amlekhgunj Pipeline


  • The recently launched Motihari (Bihar)-Amlekhgunj (Nepal) pipeline is the first cross-border petroleum products pipeline in South Asia.
  • The 69km pipeline will transport fuel from Barauni in Bihar to Amlekhgunj in Nepal.
  • Construction of the pipeline was undertaken by Indian Oil Corp. Ltd (IOCL), India’s largest refiner, in collaboration with Nepal Oil Corp. Ltd (NOCL).

Chilahati- Haldibari Rail Link


  • The foundation stone was laid at Chilahati in Bangladesh for undertaking the work of up-gradation and laying of missing tracks from Chilahati to the border with India near Haldibari.
  • The 7.5-kilometre long railway track will help in providing connectivity from West Bengal into Assam via Bangladesh.
  • The Haldibari-Chilahati railway track was part of the broad gauge main route from Kolkata to Siliguri during British undivided India. Trains from Bangladesh to Darjeeling via Siliguri operated till 1965 which stopped functioning after the 1965 Indo-Pak war.

Taiwan: Losing Diplomatic Allies


  • Kiribati is the seventh country to sever its diplomatic ties with Taiwan since President Tsai Ing-wen came to office in 2016, following Burkina Faso, the Dominican Republic, Sao Tome and Principe, Panama, El Salvador and the Solomon Islands.
  • China claims Taiwan as its territory, and says the democratic island has no right to formal ties with any country.
  • Taiwan now has formal relations with only 15 countries worldwide.
  • India has no official diplomatic relations with Taiwan.

Operation Matterhorn


  • It was the largest peacetime repatriation of British Govt. after travel company Thomas Cook declared bankruptcy, stranding hundreds of thousands of holiday-makers.
  • The effort was to fly 150,000 travelers who were booked on Thomas Cook flights back home to Britain.

World Patient Safety Day


  • In World War II, Operation Matterhorn was a military operation of the United States Army Air Forces for the strategic bombing of Japanese forces. The name comes from the Matterhorn, a mountain the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy, traditionally considered particularly difficult to climb.
  • The World Health Organization hosted the first-ever World Patient Safety Day on September 17, 2019.
  • It is an awareness campaign, to be observed annually, to prevent harms to patients due to errors in diagnosis, errors in medicine prescriptions and treatments, and the inappropriate use of drugs. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 138 million patients are harmed every year by doctors' errors.
  • 17 September was established as World Patient Safety Day by the 72nd World Health Assembly in May 2019.
  • The theme of the very first World patient Safety Day was “Patient Safety: A Global Health Priority” and the slogan was “Speak up for Patient Safety”.

Indio-French Strategy In Western Indian Ocean Region


  • India and France have taken concrete steps to firm up their strategic partnership in the western Indian Ocean, as part of their respective Indo-Pacific strategies.
  •  Leaders of India, France and Vanilla Islands – consisting of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius and Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean – met for the first time in Reunion Islands (a French territory) for exploring economic and development partnership.
  •  India, in partnership with France, is keen to focus on port development, blue economy, trade, connectivity, tourism, skill development, hospitality and healthcare in this resource-rich region. India is also eyeing gas deposits in the Mozambique Channel near Vanilla Islands.
  • While India has longstanding defence partnerships with Mauritius and Seychelles, its defence ties with Comoros and Madagascar are growing as part of India’s Indo-Pacific outreach to ensure peace and stability.
  • India’s mantra for the region 'SAGAR' stands for 'security and growth for all'. India could forge a strong economic partnership in the Indo-Pacific, especially around the Reunion.”

‘Vanilla Islands’


  • Vanilla Islands is a grouping of six island nations in south-west Indian Ocean -Mayotte, Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles, Reunion and Madagascar.
  • The term ‘Vanilla’ is used because these countries are known for their export of the flavouring substance Vanilla

Comoros Accords Its Highest Civilian Honour On Naidu


  • The Vice president of India Venkaiah Naidu, during his recent visit to Comoros, was accorded its highest civilian honour ‘The Order of the Green Crescent’.
  • The Vice President is the first to receive the honour from India.
  • India announced to extend a Line of Credit of over 60 million US Dollars to Comoros in the field of energy and maritime defence cooperation.

OVL Finds Oil And Gas


  • State-owned ONGC Videsh Ltd (OVL) has discovered oil and gas in its exploration blocks in Colombia and Brazil respectively.
  • ONGC Videsh has recorded discoveries of oil in its onshore exploration block CPO-5, Colombia in the Llanos basin and major gas in the deep offshore exploration block BM-SEAL-4, Brazil in the Sergipe Alagoas Basin.
  • ONGC Videsh Ltd, the overseas arm of ONGC, has invested $28 billion in 41 projects across 20 countries and has probable reserves of 711.36 million tonnes of oil equivalent.

'Bishwa Ijtema'


  • Bangladesh will hold the first phase of Bishwa Ijtema, the second largest congregation of Muslim community after Hajj, from January 10 to 12 next year in Dhaka. The second phase of the Ijtema will be held from January 17 to 19.
  • Bishwa Ijtema is an annual event which is held on the bank of the Turag river at Tongi on the outskirts of Dhaka since 1967.
  • Bishwa Ijtema means world congregation and it draws in Muslims from about 150 countries.
  • It is a gathering that focuses on prayer and meditation and is not open for political discussions.

Operation Kayla Mueller


  • The operation that claimed the life of Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was named after 26-year-old Kayla Mueller, an American who was kidnapped by the extremist group and killed in 2015.
  • The world's most wanted terrorist was killed in an American air raid in northwest Syria.

Operation Peace Spring


  • The 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria, after the pull-out by the US troops, code-named by Turkey as Operation Peace Spring, is an ongoing cross-border military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces and the Syrian National Army against the Syrian Democratic Forces and the Syrian Arab Army in northeastern Syria.