What are the Main Reasons behind Assam's Recurring Floods?

  • 09 Jul 2024

The recent floods have created havoc, leading to loss of lives and nearly 40,000 hectares of crop area as per the Assam State Disaster Management Authority.


Vast River Network

  • Assam has over 120 rivers, many originating from extreme rainfall areas in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, China, and Bhutan, making the state susceptible to flooding.

Bank Erosion

  • The relentless force of the Brahmaputra River contributes significantly to the recurring floods in Assam.
  • Bank erosion, characterized by the removal of soil, sediment, or rock fragments along the riverbanks, results in the widening of the river and alterations in its course.

Obsolete Flood Control Structures

  • Most of flood control structures in Assam date back to the 1960s and 1970s, when the hydrology of Assam’s rivers, including the mighty Brahmaputra, was poorly understood.

Inadequate Drainage System

  • Assam’s flood vulnerability is further compounded by the inadequate drainage infrastructure across the state.

Encroachment & Unplanned Urban Growth

  • In Assam, the encroachment of river banks and wetlands has become a significant factor aggravating the flood situation.
  • The rapid and unplanned urban growth in Assam has significantly contributed to the recurring floods.