New Delhi Declaration (NDD)

Why is it in News?

‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ was signed by the five rhino range nations for the conservation and protection of the species. To increase the population of three species of Asian rhinos, including the Greater one-horned rhinoceros found in the Indian sub-continent, India will collaborate with Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia.

What are the Different Asian Rhinos?

Asian Rhinos are classified into three species:

a) Greater One Horn Rhino/ Indian Rhino

b) Javan Rhino

c) Sumatran Rhino

Asian Rhino Countries: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Malaysia and Indonesia.

What has been the Outcome of NDD?

  • Countries have agreed for Trans Boundary Collaboration.
  • Real time intelligence sharing
  • Review of Population after 4 years
  • Expanding the Rhino habitat.

About Greater One Horn Rhino/ Indian Rhino:

  • It is largest of all the Rhino species.
  • IUCN status- Vulnerable
  • Current global population of Indian Rhino is 3,584. Kaziranga National Park has the highest rhinos in India (2,938) and Nepal has 646 Rhinos.

New Delhi Declaration (NDD) vis-à-vis One Horned Rhino:

  • At NDD it was realised that the single population of rhinos in Sukla-Phanta (Nepal), Valmiki Tiger Reserve (India), Chitwan National Park (Nepal) and Dudhwa (India) is separated by the political boundary between the two countries; hence, complete coordination has to be there for the free movement of Indian Rhino.
  • At NDD it was also decided that Bhutan per-se has no One Horned Rhino but sometimes Rhinos from Buxa Tiger Reserve or Manas National Park goes to Bhutan and therefore Bhutan too was taken on board for the conservation strategy.

Sumatran Rhino:

  • It is the only Asian Rhino having two horns.
  • It is the smallest of all the Asian Rhinos.
  • IUCN status- Critically Endangered.

Javan Rhino:

  • Only 65 Javan Rhinos are there in Unjung Kulan National Park, Javan Island, Indonesia.
  • IUCN status- Critically Endangered
Source: TH