Gupta Era Temple found with Inscriptions in ‘Shankha’ Lipi

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has discovered the remains of an ancient temple from the reign of the Gupta Empire in Bilsarh village in Etah district of Uttar Pradesh.


  • An ancient staircase bearing inscriptions in the Shankhalipi (conch script or shell script) script (used between the 4th and 8th centuries CE) was found.
  • The text on the staircase bore the title of ‘Sri Mahendradity’ - a title accorded to Gupta ruler Kumaragupta I. He ruled over north-central India during the 5th century (CE).
  • The ancient stairs led to an undiscovered structural temple that was built during the Gupta era for Brahmins, Jains and Buddhists.
  • The recent discovery is significant in the sense that to date only two other structural temples from the Gupta age have been found- Dashavatara Temple (Deogarh) and Bhitargaon Temple (Kanpur Dehat).
  • Guptas were the first to build structural temples (use of stone blocks), a distinct change from the ancient rock-cut temples (rock cut temples are monolithic structure, i.e. they are cut out of a single stone).

India to organise First-ever Global Buddhist Conference

From 19th to 20th November 2021, India will organise the first-ever Global Buddhist Conference that will become an annual feature.

  • It will be held in Nalanda, Bihar in the campus of the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara.
  • The event is being planned by Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR).

Aim of this Conference

  • This is an academic conference to make India a center of Buddhism, not about tourism.
  • It is about making center for Buddhist activities, like academics, cultural, seminars, people traveling for festival - Buddha Purnima, Vesak. ICCR is also going to have a manuscript repository.

New Award for Promotion of Buddhism

  • ICCR has announced an award for the promotion of Buddhist studies which will be given on 21st November in Delhi by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
  • The award carries a cash reward of $20,000 (around Rs 14.7 lakh), a plaque, and a gold-plated medallion.

Four Regional Conferences before Main Conference

  • In the run-up to the conference, four regional conferences in India - Telangana, Saranath, Gangtok and Dharamshala and abroad - in Japan, South Korea, Thailand and Cambodia will be organised. Reports of these regional conferences will be presented at the Global Buddhist Conference.

Kakatiya Rudreswara Temple: India’s 39th ‘World Heritage Site’

Telangana’s Kakatiya Rudreswara Temple (popularly known as Ramappa temple), located at Palampet village in the newly formed Mulugu District has been inscribed by UNESCO as World Heritage Site.

  • It was declared at the World Heritage Committee’s 44th session being organized at Fuzhou (China) from 16 to 31 July.
  • After this, India has 39 (31 are cultural, 7 are natural, and 1 is mixed) World Heritage Sites.

About Kakatiya Rudreswara Temple

  • The Rudreswara temple was constructed in 1213 AD during the reign of the Kakatiya Empire by Recharla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya king Ganapati Deva.
  • The presiding deity here is Ramalingeswara Swamy.
  • It is also known as the Ramappa temple, after the sculptor who executed the work in the temple for 40 years and probably the only temple in the country to be known by the name of its sculptor.
  • The temple is built with bricks that are so light that they can float on water. The bricks were believed to be made spongy using something like saw-dust.
  • The temple stands on a 6-feet high star-shaped platform with walls, pillars and ceilings adorned with intricate carvings which are the hallmarks of the Kakatiya sculptors.
  • The carvings -- mythical animals, female dancers - are considered as masterpieces of Kakatiya art.
  • Italian merchant and explorer Marco Polo had remarked that the Ramappa temple was the “brightest star in the galaxy of medieval temples of the Deccan.”

Liverpool stripped of ‘World Heritage’ Status

  • The English city of Liverpool was removed from UNESCO's list of world heritage sites on 21 July 2021 because new buildings undermined the attractiveness of its Victorian docks, making it only the third site to be removed from the prestigious list.
  • Liverpool was named a World Heritage Site by the United Nation's cultural organization in 2004, joining landmarks such as the Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, and the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
  • After a vote in China by members of its World Heritage Committee, UNESCO said the new buildings in Liverpool were undermining the city's "authenticity and integrity."
  • Liverpool was put on the heritage list in recognition of its role as one of the world's most important ports during the 18th and 19th centuries and for its architectural beauty.
  • The only other sites stripped previously of the title are a wildlife sanctuary in Oman in 2007 after poaching and habitat loss and the Dresden Elbe valley in Germany in 2009 when a four-lane bridge was built over the river.
  • The heritage label gives historic sites access to UN conservation funding as well as featuring in tourist guidebooks across the world.

Pallava Era ‘Hero Stone’ discovered in Tamil Nadu

A group of local archaeology enthusiasts from Tamil Nadu have unearthed a Pallava era hero stone near Harur. It is the third in the line of hero stones discovered in the same location and bearing the name of Eachuvara Varaman, a Pallava ruler.

  • The hero stone is engraved with Tamil Brahmi script that speaks of the death of a lieutenant of one Vanaathiarasar, during a conflict and his death in the conflict.
  • Two more hero stones were recovered from the same area. An earlier hero stone bears the name “Paramthaayar, which literally would mean big family taking after the word “Param”. The name was that of a clan chief, or chief of a pastoral land nurtured along river banks.
  • While all the three hero stones were attributed to the rule of Eachuvara Varman, the names in the hero stones is supposed to have been that of the local chiefs, who directly led the people.
  • The hero stones were erected valorising the martyrdom of those men, who had fought to claim pastoral lands in the conflicts that arose between clans that contested over pastoral lands in the area.

About Hero Stone

  • Hero Stone is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle.
  • Erected between the 6th century BC and the 18th century AD, hero stones are found all over India.
  • They often carry inscriptions displaying a variety of adornments, including bas relief panels, frieze, and figures on carved stone.
  • Usually they are in the form of a stone monument and may have an inscription at the bottom with a narrative of the battle.

About Pallava Dynasty

  • The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.
  • Pallava Dynasty was founded by Simhavishnu in 560 A.D. Their capital was at Kanchipuram.
  • Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south. Pallavas were finally defeated by the Chola ruler Aditya I in the 9th century CE.
  • The territory of the Pallavas was known as Tundaka Visaya or Tundaka Rashtra.
  • Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mamallapuram.
  • Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited Kanchipuram during Pallava rule and extolled their benign rule.

Palaeolithic Cave Paintings found in Aravalli

Archaeologists have discovered cave paintings in Haryana that they believe belong to the Upper Palaeolithic age, which could potentially make them one of the oldest cave arts in the country.

The caves are in the Aravalli mountain ranges, just outside the national capital, near the region’s only surviving patch of primary forest, a holy grove called Mangar Bani.

  • So far Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh is home to the oldest known cave art in India, dating back to the Mesolithic Age (around 10,000 years ago).
  • The Mangar cave art is 20,000-40,000 years old, according to archaeologists, but this is something that can be established through archaeological dating.

The Find: Paintings

  • Cave paintings comprising images of human figurines, animals, foliage, and geometric, some that have paled over time, but others that are still very visible.
  • Rock art and open-air ceremonial sites were also found.

About Colours of Painting

  • Most of the paintings are ochre, but some are white.
  • According to experts, cave paintings in white are usually from a later stage (early contemporary era), while Stone Age paintings are more often than not, ochre.
  • Stone Age paintings generally have red and ochre colours. Stones of these colour used to be available locally and inhabitants crushed the stones for preparing the colour for paintings.

Upper Paleolithic Age

  • The Upper Paleolithic Age began around 40,000 years ago and lasted till around 10,000 years ago.

Earlier Finds in this Area

  • Tools from the Palaeolithic Age have been identified earlier in parts of the Aravallis but, it is for the first time that cave paintings and rock art of a large magnitude have been found in Haryana.
  • The Aravallis demonstrate the earliest evidence of the Stone Age which we call the Lower Palaeolithic Acheulean culture.

India returns Holy Relic of Queen St. Ketevan to Georgia

External Affairs Minister Dr S Jaishankar during his recent visit (first by an external affairs minister to Georgia, since the country’s independence) to Georgia, returned one part of holy relic of Queen St Ketevan to Georgia.

  • One part of the holy relics still remains in India as a reminder of shared past of India and Georgia.
  • In 2017, at the request of the Georgian government, India sent the relics to Georgia for exhibition for six months. This loan of relics was extended for another six months. The relics returned to India on September 30, 2018.
  • The holy relics were preserved at the St. Augustine Church in Goa since the 17th century.
  • Her relics were taken to India by two devoted Augustinian monks who witnessed the last years of her life.

About Queen Ketevan

  • Ketevan (1560-1624) was the queen of Kakheti, a kingdom located in a region of eastern Georgia.
  • Kakheti was a small kingdom, which was nestled between two mighty Islamic empires: The Ottoman Empire (in present-day Turkey) and the Safavid empire (in present-day Iran).
  • She was killed at Shiraz, Iran, after prolonged tortures by the Safavid suzerains of Kakheti for refusing to give up the Christian faith and convert to Islam.
  • Queen Ketevan was canonised as a saint by the Georgian Orthodox Church shortly after her death.
  • Her place as a subject of veneration is attributed to her courageous stand against the demand for forcible conversion.

Kesaria Buddha Stupa:Largest in the World

  • Kesaria Buddha stupa in east Champaran district of Bihar has been recently in news due to waterlogging followed by floods.
  • It is regarded as the largest Buddhist stupa in the world.
  • The sputa’s exploration had started in the early 19th century after its discovery led by Colonel Mackenzie in 1814. Later, it was excavated by General Cunningham in 1861-62 and in 1998 an ASI team led by archaeologist K.K. Muhammad had excavated the site properly.
  • The original Kesaria stupa is said to date back to the time of emperor Ashoka (circa 250 BCE) as the remains of an Ashokan pillar was discovered there.
  • The ASI has declared it a protected monument of national importance.


  • Recently, in Patiala (Punjab), a group of Nihangs attacked a Punjab police party, has put the spotlight on the Nihangs.

About Nihang

  • Nihang is an order of Sikh warriors, characterised by blue robes, antiquated arms such as swords and spears, and decorated turbans surmounted by steel quoits.
  • Etymologically the word nihang in Persian means an alligator, sword and pen but the characteristics of Nihangs seem to stem more from the Sanskrit word nihshank which means without fear, unblemished, pure, carefree and indifferent to worldly gains and comfort.


  • The Nihangs trace their origins to the founding of the Khalsa Panth by the 10th Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh, around 1699.
  • Many claim the sect to be “guru di laadli fauj” (the guru’s favourite army).
  • The armed sect is believed to have emerged from the Akaal Sena, a band of soldiers of Guru Hargobind, the sixth guru.
  • Later, the Akaal Sena metamorphosed into the ‘Khalsa Fauj’ of the 10th guru.

Social Structure

  • The Nihangs are not one consolidated sect or group
  • There are very divided and while following the same traditions and norms, they have their own independent deras, some of which are at loggerheads with one another for prominence,
  • Men and women both train in horsemanship, swordsmanship, and in the Punjabi martial art known as gatka.

Difference with other Sikh warriors

  • Nihangs did not consider themselves subordinate to any Sikh chief and thus maintained their independent existence.
  • They observe the Khalsa code of conduct in its strictest sense. They do not profess any allegiance to an earthly master.
  • Instead of saffron they hoist a blue Nishan Sahib (flag) atop their shrines.
  • Nihangs use the slogans ‘chhardi kala’ (forever in high spirits) and ‘tiar bar tiar’ (state of ever preparedness) for unforeseen events.
  • The Nihangs are fond of a popular drink called shardai or sharbati degh (sacrament drink) which contains grounded almonds, cardamom seeds, poppy seeds, black pepper, rose petals and melon seeds.
  • When a small measure of cannabis is added to it, it is termed sukhnidhan (treasure of comfort).
  • A higher dose of cannabis in it was known as shaheedi deg, sacrament of martyrdom. It was taken (while) battling enemies.

Role in Sikh History

  • Nihangs had a major role in defending the Sikh panth after the fall of the first Sikh rule (1710-15) when Mughal governors were killing Sikhs, and during the onslaught of Afghan invader Ahmed Shah Durrani (1748-65).
  • Nihangs also took control of the religious affairs of the Sikhs at Akal Bunga (now known as Akal Takht) in Amritsar.
  • Their clout came to an end after the fall of Sikh Empire in 1849 when the British authorities of Punjab appointed a manager (sarbrah) for the administration of the Golden Temple in 1859.

GI For Panchamirtham Of Palani Temple

  • On 14th August, 2019, the famous PalaniPanchamirtham, given as ‘prasadam’ at the Murugan temple there, has been granted the Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
  • This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu(TN) has been bestowed with the GI tag.
  • Interestingly, the geographical area for production of PalaniPanchamirtham is not just the temple, but the entire Palani town in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu.
  • Madurai Jasmine and the Nilgiris Tea are some of the other products from TN that have earned the GI tag.

Palani Panchamirtham:

  • It is a combination of five natural substances - banana, jaggery, cow ghee, honey and cardamom. Dates and diamond sugar candies are added for flavour.
  • It is an ‘abhishegaprasadam’ (food that is a religious offering), which is served in a semi-solid state. It is sweet in taste and one of the main offerings for Lord Dhandayuthapani Swamy, the presiding deity of Arulmigu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Temple.
  • Not even a single drop of water is added during the preparation of the panchamirtham. This gives it its classic semi-solid consistency and taste. No preservatives or artificial ingredients are used.


Arulmigu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Temple, Palani

  • It is one among the six Padaiveedu's (Abode) of Lord Muruga which is the sub temple of Arulmigu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Temple, located in the city of Palani in Dindigul district, northwest of Madurai in the foot-hills of the Palani hills, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • It belongs to 9th century and the Cheran king Cheraman Peruman constructed this temple.
  • Thai Poosam and Panguni Uthiram festivals are notified festivals of this temple.

Geographical Indication(GI)

  • A GI is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. In order to function as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place.
  • In addition, the qualities, characteristics or reputation of the product should be essentially due to the place of origin.
  • Since the qualities depend on the geographical place of production, there is a clear link between the product and its original place of production.

Thrissur Pooram Festival

Why is it in News?

The temple festival of Thrissur Pooram was held in Thrissur, Kerala on 13th May, 2019.

About the Festival:

  • It is a one day annual festival which involves ten temples in and around Thrissur. The history of Pooram dates back to the late 18th century. It was started by Sakthan Thampuran, the Maharaja of the former Kochi state.
  • In the Pooram ceremony the deities of these temples come together to pay obeisance to Lord Shiva at the Vadakumnathan Temple, located in the centre of the town.
  • One of the hallmarks of the ‘Thrissur Pooram’ is the musical percussion ensemble consisting of traditional instruments like chenda, maddalam, edakka, thimila and kombu.
  • Elephants are important part of Pooram festivities. The replicas of the deities, participating in the Pooram are carried atop the elephants as they proceed towards the Vadakumnathan temple. While 30 elephants are part of the main Pooram festivities, another 60 or 70 tuskers form a part of the smaller processions of the participating temples.
  • Although a Hindu ritual, Pooram has grown to encompass all religious and cultural strains of Kerala. Both the Muslim and Christian communities participate in the festival in a variety of ways.

Source: IE

Hampi Architecture

Why is it in News?

Tourist footfall in Hampi is down by nearly a lakh between April 2018 and March 2019, despite the fact that group of monuments at Hampi was listed on number two in ‘Must see’ tourist spot by the New York Times.

About Hampi:

  • Hampi, also referred to as the Group of Monuments at Hampi, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in state of Karnataka.
  • It became the centre of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire capital in the 14th century.
  • Vijaynagara was the capital of Vijaynagara Empire which is present day Hampi.
  • Hampi is situated on the bank of Tungbhadra (or Pampa), hence is also referred to as Pampakshetra.

How did we come to know about Vijaynagara Empire?

Various travelers came under the different rulers during this period and they have left the account of systems prevalent during this phase. For eg.,

  • Nicolas Conti (Italian) came during Dev Raya 1
  • Abdul Razzak (Arabian) came during Dev Raya II
  • Domingo Paes (Portugese) came during Krishna Dev Raya I

These travellers have explained the prevalent administrative culture, traditions etc. during the period of Vijayanagara Empire.

Hampi Architecture:

  • Mainly Dravidian in nature
  • Indo Islamic influence can be seen in almost all the temples.
  • Combinations of Cholas, Pandyas & Chalukya Style.
  • Temples were built mainly from local granite along with the lime, mortar etc.
  • Some temples during this period are - Vittala temple, Virupaksha temple (dedicated to Shiva etc.)


River Ganga

Why is it in News?

As per a study of CSIR-NEERI, it has been found that River Ganga contains significantly higher proportion of organisms with antibacterial properties.

River Ganga:

  • Source of origin: The Ganga rises from the Gangotri glacier near Gomukh in Uttarkashi district of the state of Uttarakhand.
  • The river basin of Ganga is bounded by the Himalayas in the north, Aravalli on the west, by the Vindhyas and Chota Nagpur Plateau on the south and by the Brahmaputra Ridge on the eastern front.
  • At Devprayag, River Alaknanda meets Bhagirathi and from here it is called Ganga; before Devprayag it is called Bhagirathi.
  • The largest tributary to the Ganga is the Ghaghara, which meets it before Patna, in Bihar, bearing much of the Himalayan glacier melt from Northern Nepal. The Gandak, which comes from near Katmandu, is another big Himalayan tributary.

Related Facts for Prelims:

  • River Yamuna is the right-bank tributary of the Ganga. It rises from the Yamunotri glacier on the Banderpunch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand.
  • Rudraprayag is the place of confluence of Mandakini River and Alaknanda River.
  • Nandaprayag is the place of confluence of Nandakini River and Alaknanda River.
  • Ganga meets Bay of Bengal at Sagar Island.
  • Yamuna and Ganga meets at Prayagraj (Allahabad).
  • River Kali meets Ganga at Chhapra in Bihar.

Sangeet Natak Akademi (SNA)

Why is it in News?

This year marks the 100th century of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and SNA had organised a drama on the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre to showcase the atrocities done to the unarmed masses.

About Sangeet Natak Akademi:

  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi is India's national academy for music, dance and drama and is the first national academy of the arts set-up by the Republic of India.
  • It was created by a resolution of the (then) Ministry of Education, Government of India in 1952.
  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi is presently an autonomous body of the Ministry of Culture, Government of India and is fully funded by the government for implementation of its schemes and programmes.
  • It is SNA that coordinates the matters related to Intangible Cultural Heritage and various UNESCO Conventions.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

Why is it in News?

This year (2019) marks the 100th year of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.

How is it Relevant for Prelims 2019?

In UPSC 2018, a question on ‘Champaran Satyagraha’ was asked as Champaran Satyagraha completed 100 years in 2017. Likewise, this segment becomes important for Prelims 2019.

Historical Background of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:

  • Since the beginning of the World War I, there had been an increasing resentment and civil unrest throughout the country especially in the states of West Bengal and Punjab.
  • It was due to the terrible repercussions of the war, like- inflation, and heavy taxation, a huge number of dead and wounded soldiers that contributed immensely in uniting the nation against the British Rule.

The Rowlatt Act:

  • The worsening civil unrest led to the formation of Rowlatt Committee in 1919. The Rowlatt Act (Anarchial & Revolutionary Crimes Act 1919) was a legislative act that allowed certain political cases to be tried without the presence of a jury and permitted internment of suspects without any trial (it was referred in Hindi by our nationalists to as ‘No Vakil, No Appeal & No Dalil’).
  • This is the time when Mahatma Gandhi came to light as a revolutionary and organised ‘Rowlatt Satyagraha’.

Trigger Points of the Event and Massacre:

  • The crowd was peacefully protesting the arrest of two national leaders Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satya Pal; seeing this Dyer banned all the public meetings and imposed curfew, but this message was not widely circulated and people gathered in huge numbers at the Jallianwala Bagh.
  • Dyer went there with the troops and ordered firing on the unarmed masses leading to death of thousands of people (around 1000 people died and 1500 people were injured).

Repercussion of the Massacre:

  • Rabindranath Tagore renounced his ‘Knighthood’ in protest to this barbaric incident.
  • Mahatma Gandhi renounced his ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’.
  • On April 18, 1919, Gandhi withdrew the movement and termed it as the ‘Himalayan Blunder’.

Killing of Michael O’Dwyer:

  • Udham Singh was acting as a volunteer (supplying water to the crowd) in the Jallianwala Bagh protests, he witnessed the killing of thousands of people and this led to a deep sense of revenge and he killed Michael O’Dwyer (Lieutinent Governor ofPunjab, who approved of Reginald Dyer’s action) on 13th March 1940, at Caxton Hall London.

Hunter Commission:

  • On 14th October 1919, Hunter Commission was made to look into the killing of innocent people. This commission found Dyer guilty and reported that Dyer overstepped the bounds of his authority.
  • But the tragic situation was that it did not impose any penal or disciplinary action against Dyer, which finally culminated in Non-cooperation Movement (one of the cause was Punjab injustice)

Source: TH, Livemint

Sirsi Supari

Why is it in News?

‘Sirsi Supari’, grown in Uttara Kannada has become the 1st product from the arecanut sector to get a Geographic Indication (GI) tag.

About Sirsi Supari:

  • ‘Sirsi Supari’ arecanut is grown in Sirsi, Siddpaur and Yellapur taluks of Uttara Kannada district in Karnataka.
  • Sirsi Supari is medium-sized, round in shape, close to the color of ash with hard seed.
  • The annual production of Sirsi Supari is estimated to be around 40,000 tonnes grown on an area of nearly 40,000 acres.

What makes Sirsi Supari different?

  • Sirsi Supari is said to be unique in taste from arecanuts grown in other parts of the country due to the differences in the chemical composition of different arecanuts.
  • The arecanut grown in these taluks have unique features like a round and flattened coin shape, particular texture, size, cross-sectional views, taste, etc. These features are not seen in arecanut grown in any other regions.
  • The total average flavonoid content in Sirsi Supari is around 90 whereas in others it is around 80.

What is a Geographical Indication Tag?

The World Intellectual Property Organisation defines GI as a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.

GI Tag finds mention under the TRIPS (Trade related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) of WTO.

Registrar of Geographical Indicators under Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trademarks (Ministry of Commerce) look into the issues of GI.

Darjeeling Tea became the first product to get a GI Tag in India in 2004-05; 343 had been added to the list of GI tags in India since then.

Other Examples of GI Tag:

  • Bhagalpuri Silk of Bhagalpur
  • Sujini Embroidery of Bihar
  • Tangaliya Shawl of Gujarat
  • Kadaknath Black Chicken of Madhya Pradesh

Source: TH

Kulhadar Miniature Painting

What are the Different Styles of Indian Painting?

Indian Paintings can be broadly classified into two groups:

1. Mural Paintings- Found predominantly before 11th Century A.D.

2. Miniature Painting- Found predominantly after 11th Century A.D.

Mural Paintings:

  • Usually done on walls and has its genesis in the Gupta Period.
  • The best examples of this style of painting are paintings on the Ajanta & Ellora Caves.

Miniature Paintings:

  • Miniature is derived from the word ‘MINIA’ in Renaissance period which means ‘RED’. Miniature painting does not mean small.
  • Size of the Miniature Paintings cannot be greater than 25inches.
  • Scaling of size shall not be greater than 1/6.
  • It can be executed on books, clothes, paper and even glass.
  • One of the finest examples of Miniature Painting is ‘Bani Thani’ by Nihal Chand of Marwar School of Painting.

About Kulhadar Painting:

This miniature painting originated in 16th Century A.D. and is completely indigenous i.e. it has no tinge of either Persian or Mughal style of painting.

What is Unique about this Painting?

  • The style of these miniatures is marked by the use of brilliant contrasting colours, vigorous and angular drawing, transparent drapery and the appearance of conical caps 'Kulha' on which turbans are worn by the male figures.
  • This group of painting includes illustrations of the 'Chaurapanchasika' – ‘Fifty Verses of the Thief by Bilhan, the Gita Govinda, the Bhagavata Purana and Ragamala.

Source: TH


Tholpavakoothu is a form of shadow puppetry that is practiced in Kerala.

Genesis of this Puppetry:

It is believed to have originated in the late 9th Century A.D. and this puppetry uses Kamban Ramayana as its basic text. This art form is dedicated to Bhadrakali.

When is this Art Form Performed?

This art form is performed generally in the months of January to May. It is performed using leather puppets in Devi temples in specially built theatres called koothumadams.

Source: TH

Ambubachi Mela

The Ambubachi Mela is an annual Hindu fair held at the Kamakhya Temple in Guwahati, Assam. It is four day fair to mark the menstruation of Kamakhya Goddess.

Significance of the Festival:

  • The ritualistic fair celebrating the goddess’ annual menstruation period is one of the reasons why the taboo associated with menstruation is minimal in Assam compared to other parts of India.
  • Celebration of this festival leads to dissemination of knowledge related to menstruation hygiene.

Source: TH


About the Dance form:

  • Theyyam is derived from a Sanskrit word ‘Daivam’ which means God’s Dance.
  • Theyyam is a popular ritual form of worship in Kolathunadu area of Kerala, which is performed by men only.
  • Theyyam is usually performed in front of sacred groves which are locally called as ‘Kaavu’.
  • Theyyam is a ritualistic performance where pantheistic deities are summoned to the body of the performing man, one who is almost always from a subaltern community.
  • In this dance form, dancers spin and twirl to the frantic drums and they enter a state of trance before collapsing. It takes a while for them to revive after which devotees seek their blessings.

Striking Features of Theyyam:

  • People wear colorful costumes and elaborate makeup.
  • Performers of Theyyam wear headgears of around 5 to 6 ft.

Instruments used in this Dance Form: Chenda, Tudi, Kuzhal, Veekni etc.

Source: TH

Gita Govind

Why is it in news?

The Victoria Memorial Hall (VMH) in Kolkata displayed the handwritten script of Gita Govind from the 17th century to mark International Mother Language Day (21 February).

About Gita Govind:

The Gita Govinda (songs of Govind/ Krishna) is a work composed by the 12th-century Indian poet, Jayadeva. It describes the relationship between Krishna and Radha. This book puts Radha on higher pedestal than Krishna and the poems/ texts of this book have been an inspiration for many compositions and choreographic works in Indian classical dances. Jaydeva was the courtier of Laxman sena of Sena Dynasty, Bengal.

Source: TH

Battle Of Sinhagad

Why is it in News?

The original commemorative memorial of Tanaji Malusare was recently found while restoring the Sinhagad Fort, 35 km from Pune. Tanaji Malusare was a Maratha warrior after whom Shivaji is said to have named Sinhagad Fort (Lion’s fort).

The Battle of Sinhagad:

The Battle of Sinhagad took place in 1670 on the fort of Sinhagad near the city of Pune. The battle was fought between Tanaji Malusare, a Koli commander of Maratha ruler Shivaji Maharaj and Udaybhan Rathod. In this battle Tanaji Malusare died and Shivaji Maharaj renamed the fort of Kondhana as Sinhagad Fort (Lion’s Fort) in his remembrance.

Source: TH


Why is it in News?

The Kattaikkuttu Sangam recently completed the performance of their drama ‘Abhimanyu’.

What is it?

  • It is a Tamil-language based physical and vocal form of rural, open-air ensemble theatre. It is widespread in the northern and central parts of the state of Tamil Nadu in South India.
  • Kattaikkuttu uses different kinds of song, music, articulated prose, acting, movement, make-up and elaborate costumes. It produces all-night narrative events most of which are based on the pan-Indian epic, the Mahabharata.
  • The performers – by tradition only men - sing, act and dance and the musicians accompany them on the harmonium, the mridangam and the mukavinai.
It uses a wide range of media that require multiple skills, including a strong voice, versatile acting and movement skills and a talent for spontaneous comedy.