First Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of India


NITI Aayog has released the first-ever Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of India.

This baseline report of the national MPI measure is based on the reference period of 2015-16 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS).

Objective

  • The MPI seeks to measure poverty across its multiple dimensions and in effect complements existing poverty statistics based on per capita consumption expenditure.

Dimensions & Indicators

  • The Index is based on three equally weighted dimensions – health, education, and standard of living – which in turn are represented by 12 indicators such as nutrition, school attendance, years of schooling, drinking water, sanitation, housing, bank accounts among others.
  • The MPI uses the globally accepted methodology developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The dimensions of the index have proven to help identify and achieve targeted policy interventions.

Key Findings

  • Overall, 25% of the population in India is Multi-dimensionally poor.

Performance of States/UTs

Highest Poverty

  • States: Bihar has the highest proportion of people, at 51.91 per cent of the state’s population, who are multi-dimensionally poor, followed by Jharkhand at 42.16 per cent and Uttar Pradesh at 37.79 per cent.
  • UTs: Among the Union Territories (UTs), Dadra and Nagar Haveli (27.36 per cent), Jammu & Kashmir, and Ladakh (12.58), Daman & Diu (6.82 per cent) and Chandigarh (5.97 per cent), have emerged as the poorest UTs in India.

Lowest Poverty

  • States: Kerala, Goa, and Sikkim have the lowest percentage of population being multi-dimensionally poor at 0.71 per cent, 3.76 per cent and 3.82 per cent, respectively.
  • UTs: The proportion of poor in Puducherry at 1.72 per cent is the lowest among the Union Territories, followed by Lakshadweep at 1.82 per cent, Andaman & Nicobar Islands at 4.30 per cent and Delhi at 4.79 per cent.

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021

  • According to Global MPI 2021, released recently by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI), India’s rank is 66 out of 109 countries.

The Index Uses Three Dimensions and Ten Indicators:

  • Education: Years of schooling and child enrollment
  • Health: Child mortality and nutrition
  • Standard of Living: Electricity, flooring, drinking water, sanitation, cooking fuel and assets

Major Findings on India

  • In India five out of six multi-dimensionally poor people are from lower tribes or castes (ST-9.4%; SC-33.3%; and OBC- 27.2%).

Key Findings of NFHS-5 Phase II


After NFHS-5 in respect of 22 States & UTs covered in Phase-I (released in December, 2020), the Phase II report was released recently for India and 14 States/UTs (clubbed under Phase-II) of the 2019-21 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5).

The States and UTs which were surveyed in the Phase-II are Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, NCT of Delhi, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

The key results from India and Phase-II States/UTs NFHS-5 Factsheet

More Women than Men in India for the 1st Time

  • India now has 1,020 women for every 1000 men. The numbers indicate that India can no longer be called a country of “missing women”, a phrase first used by Nobel Prize winning economist Amartya Sen in a 1990 essay in the New York Review of Books. Back then, there were 927 women per 1,000 men in India. According to NFHS-3, conducted in 2005-06, the ratio was equal, 1000: 1000; it went down to 991:1000 in 2015-16 in NFHS-4. This is the first time, in any NFHS or Census, that the sex ratio is skewed in favour of women.

Gender Ratio at Birth - Still a Concern

  • The gender ratio at birth for children born in the last five years is still 929, which suggests that son-preference, in its various macabre forms, still persists, but the sex ratio is a significant milestone achieved on the back of policies aimed to curb sex selection practices that were once rampant and female infanticide, and on the fact that women in India tend to live longer than men.

Other Findings

  • The Total Fertility Rates (TFR) - an average number of children per women has further declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level and all 14States/UT’s ranging from 1.4 in Chandigarh to 2.4 in Uttar Pradesh. All Phase-II States have achieved replacement level of fertility (2.1) except Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased substantially from 54% to 67% at all-India level and in almost all Phase-II States/UTs with an exception of Punjab. Use of modern methods of contraceptives has also increased in almost all States/UTs.
  • Unmet needs of Family Planning - have witnessed a significant decline from13 per cent to 9 per cent at all-India level and in most of the Phase-II States/UTs. The unmet need for spacing which remained a major issue in India in the past has come down to less than 10 per cent in all the States except Jharkhand (12%), Arunachal Pradesh (13%) and Uttar Pradesh (13%).
  • Full Immunization Drive among Children aged 12-23 months has recorded substantial improvement from 62 per cent to 76 per cent at all-India level.11out of 14 States/UTs has more than three-fourth of children aged 12-23 months with fully immunization and it is highest (90%) for Odisha.
  • Institutional Births: Increased substantially from 79 per cent to 89 percent at all-India Level. Institutional delivery is 100 per cent in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu and more than 90 per cent in 7 States/UTs out of 12 Phase II States/UTs.
  • C-section: Along with an increase in institutional births, there has also been a substantial increase in C-section deliveries in many States/UTs especially in private health facilities.

Child Nutrition: Improved

  • Stunting: Declined from 38 per cent to 36 per cent
  • Wasting: Declined from 21 per cent to 19 per cent
  • Underweight: Declined from 36 per cent to 32 percent

Breastfeeding: Improved

  • Exclusive breastfeeding to children under age 6 months has shown an improvement in all-India level from 55 percent in 2015-16 to 64 per cent in 2019-21. All the phase-II States/UTs are also showing a considerable progress.

Anaemia is still a Concern

  • Among children and women it continues to be a cause of concern. More than half of the children and women (including pregnant women) are anemic in all the phase-II States/UTs and all-India level compared to NFHS4, in spite of substantial increase in the composition of iron folic acid (IFA) tablets by pregnant women for 180 days or more.

SDG Urban Index and Dashboard 2021–22


On 23 November 2021, NITI Aayog released the inaugural SDG Urban Index and Dashboard 2021–22.

  • It is another step of NITI Aayog towards localizing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and instituting robust SDG progress monitoring systems at the national, State/UT, and local levels.
  • The index and dashboard are a result of the NITI Aayog-GIZ and BMZ collaboration focused on driving SDG localization in our cities, under the umbrella of Indo-German Development Cooperation.
  • Total 56 urban areas were considered for computation where Shimla topped the Index followed by Coimbatore and Chandigarh.

Why this Index?

To achieve 2030 Agenda

  • With one-third of the journey towards achieving the 2030 Agenda behind us, measuring progress on the SDG in urban areas is critical.
  • NITI Aayog seeks to empower local administrations to adopt a measurement-based approach to decision making.
  • Only if the SDG agenda is adopted by the last mile stakeholders can we hope to achieve the global 2030 Agenda.
  • The SDG Urban Index is one more step towards localising the SDGs further.

Benefits

  • The index and dashboard will further strengthen SDG localization and institute robust SDG monitoring at the city level.
  • It highlights the strengths and gaps of ULB-level data, monitoring, and reporting systems.
  • Tools such as this index and dashboard will contribute to the creation of an ecosystem in which all stakeholders will be equipped to adopt and implement data-driven decision making.
  • This transformative change is quite essential, given the increasing prominence of our cities and urban areas in charting the future of development in India.

Methodology

  • The statistical methodology for the SDG Urban Index is drawn from the globally accepted methodology developed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN).

Indicators

  • A comprehensive list of 77 indicators, covering 46 global SDG targets across 15 SDGs, are used in the index.

Exclusion

  • SDG 14 (life below water) has not been included as it is relevant for only coastal areas, which are only a few of the selected cities.
  • SDG 15: Progress under SDG 15 (life on land) has been measured using two indicators they have not been used in estimating the scores, owing to lack of adequate coverage.
  • SDG 17 (partnerships for the goals) has been excluded as the progress of its targets are monitored at the national level.

Ranking Scale & Classification of Urban Areas

  • The SDG Urban Index and Dashboard ranks 56 urban areas on 77 SDG indicators across 46 targets of the SDG framework.
  • For each SDG, the urban areas are ranked on a scale of 0-100.
  • A score of 100 implies that the urban area has achieved the targets set for 2030
  • A score of 0 implies that it is the farthest from achieving the targets among the selected urban areas.
  • Overall or composite urban area scores are then generated from the Goal-wise scores to measure aggregate performance of the urban area.

Urban areas have been classified as below based on their composite score:

  • Aspirant: 0–49
  • Performer: 50–64
  • Front-Runner: 65–99
  • Achiever: 100

Score-wise Top & Bottom 10 Urban Areas

Top 10 Urban Areas

Urban Area State/UT Composite Score
Shimla Himachal Pradesh 75.50
Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 73.29
Chandigarh Chandigarh 72.36
Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 72.36
Kochi Kerala 72.29
Panaji Goa 71.86
Pune Maharashtra 71.21
Tiruchirapalli Tamil Nadu 70.00
Ahmedabad Gujarat 69.79
Nagpur Maharashtra 69.79
Bottom 10 Urban Areas
Urban Area State/UT Composite Score
Faridabad Haryana

58.57

Kolkata West Bengal 58.5
Agra Uttar Pradesh 58.21

Kohima

Nagaland 58.07
Jodhpur Rajasthan 58
Patna Bihar 57.29
Guwahati Assam 55.79
Itanagar Arunachal Pradesh 55.29
Meerut Uttar Pradesh 54.64
Dhanbad Jharkhand 52.43

Some Major Goal-wise Findings

  • Sex Ratio at Birth: 19 out of 56 Urban Areas have a sex ratio at birth greater than or equal to 950.
  • Institutional Delivery: At least 9 in 10 births are institutional for 37 out of 56 urban areas.
  • Accidental Deaths: 0.26 accidental deaths per 1,00,000 population have occurred due to forces of nature across 44 urban areas in 2019. India value is 0.61 per 1,00,000 population.
  • Skill Development Centres: 83.92% of 56 Urban Areas have incubation/skill development centres.
  • Skill Training: 13 out of 54 Urban Areas have greater than 50% trainees placed out of total number of people provided skill training.
  • Per Capita Hazardous Waste Generation: 20 Kg per capita hazardous waste is generated on an average across 50 urban areas. India value is 8 Kg per capita per year.
  • Crime against Senior Citizen: The average rate of crime against senior citizen is 38.2 per 1,00,000 population across 54 urban areas. India value is 26.7 per 1,00,000 population.
  • Crime against SCs: Average rate of crime against SCs per 1,00,000 population is 25.69 across 54 urban areas. India value is 22.8 per 1,00,000 population.
  • Municipal Solid Waste: 21 out of 56 Urban Areas treat 100% of their generted Municipal solid waste.
  • Pupil-Teacher Ratio: 96.4% of 56 Urban Areas have a pupil-teacher ratio at the secondary level of less than 30.
  • Clean Cooking Fuel: At least 9 in 10 are using clean cooking fuel in 31 out of 56 Urban Areas.
  • Coverage of Health Insurance: 16% of 56 Urban areas have more than 50% households with at least 1 usual member covered by health Insurance/scheme.
  • Prevalence of Anaemia: 55 out of 56 urban areas have greater than 25% anaemia prevalence among women aged 15-49 years.
  • Sanitation: At least 9 in 10 households have access to improved sanitation facilities in 35 out of 56 urban areas.

Goal-wise Top Performing Urban Areas

SDG Goal Top Performer
1 No Poverty Coimbatore
2 Zero Hunger Kochi
3 Good Health and Well-being Shimla
4 Quality Education Tiruvanantapuram
5 Gender Equality Kochi
6 Clean Water and Sanitation Bhopal
7 Affordable and Clean Energy Shimla
8 Decent Work and Economic Growth Bengaluru
9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure Surat
10 Reduced Inequality Amritsar
11 Sustainable Cities and Communities Nashik
12 Sustainable Consumption & Production Agra, Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Guwahati, Gwalior, Kanpur, Patna, Prayagraj,Rajkot, Shimla, Varanasi
13 Climate Action Aizawl, Kochi Shillong, Shimla, Tiruvanantapuram
16 Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions Panaji

All India Survey on Domestic Workers


On 22nd November 2021, Union Minister for Labour and Employment, Shri Bhupender Yadav flagged off the first ever All India Survey on Domestic Workers.

It will be conducted by Labour Bureau, Chandigarh.


(Image Source: PIB)

Need for this Survey

  • Data Deficiency: Though domestic workers (DWs) constitute a significant portion of total employment in the informal sector, there is a dearth of data on the magnitude and prevailing employment conditions. As per latest data on the e-Shram portal, around 8.8 per cent of registered 8.56 crore informal sector workers fall in the domestic worker (DW) category.

Main Objectives

  • Estimate the number/proportion of DWs at National and State level.
  • Household Estimates of Live-in/ Live-out DWs.
  • Average number of DWs engaged by different types of households.

Broad Parameters for Data Collection

  • Household Characteristics: HH size, Religion, Social Group, Usual Monthly Consumption Expenditure, Nature of Dwelling unit.
  • Demographic Characteristics: Name, Age, Relation to Head, Marital Status, General Education Level, Usual Principal Activity Status, Subsidiary Activity Status and Status of DWs.
  • Information on Employer: HHs is also collected such as their preferences of DW regarding Gender and marital status, mode of payment of wages, number of days worked, mode of engagement, whether DW services were availed during ii COVID-19 pandemic, medical support given to DWs.
  • Other Information: It also collects information on DWs such as their Age of entry, Social Group, Migrant status, Vocational Training/Education, Number of HHs served by DW, activities performed by them, and number of days worked, Duration of work, Type of remuneration and its frequency, Type of contract, Distance travelled, Engagement as DW before and after COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on wages and job, living conditions and social security benefits received.

Scope of the Survey

  • All India States/UTs of India covered are 37 and Districts covered are742.
  • Unit of Enumeration is Villages as per Census 2011 and Urban Blocks as per latest phase of UFS.
  • At the all-India level, a total number of 12766 First Stage Units (FSUs) i.e., 6190 villages and 6576 UFS blocks will be covered in the survey.
  • 1,50,000 Households i.e., the Ultimate Stage Units (USU) will be covered.

Healthcare Equity in Urban India


Recently, a report “Healthcare equity in urban India” was released by Azim Premji University in collaboration with 17 regional NGOs across India.

The report explored health vulnerabilities and inequalities in cities in India. It also looked at the availability, accessibility and cost of healthcare facilities, and possibilities in future-proofing services in the next decade.


(Image Source: greenough.biz)

Findings

  • Rising Urban Population: A third of India’s population lives in urban areas, with this segment seeing a rapid growth from about 18% (1960) to 28.53% (2001) and 34% (in 2019).
  • Urban Poor: Close to 30% of people living in urban areas are poor.
  • Life Expectancy: Among the poorest, life expectancy is lower by 9.1 years (men) and 6.2 years (women) from the corresponding figures for the richest in urban areas.
  • Urban Health Governance: Besides disproportionate disease burden on the poor, there is chaotic urban health governance - the multiplicity of healthcare providers both within and outside the Government without coordination are challenges to urban health governance.
  • Financial Burden: There is a heavy financial burden on the poor and less investment in healthcare by urban local bodies.

Recommendation

  • Strengthening community participation and governance;
  • Building a comprehensive and dynamic database on the health and nutrition status, including comorbidities of the diverse, vulnerable populations;
  • Strengthening healthcare provisioning through the National Urban Health Mission, especially for primary healthcare services; and putting in place policy measures to reduce the financial burden of the poor.
  • Better mechanism for coordinated public healthcare services and better governed private healthcare institutions as urbanisation is happening rapidly, the number of the urban poor is only expected to increase.

ASER 2021: Annual Status of Education Report (Rural)


On 17th November 2021, the 16th Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2021 (Rural) was released by Pratham foundation, an innovative learning organization created to improve the quality of education.

  • The report was prepared on the basis of the telephonic survey conducted in rural areas of 581 districts across 25 states and three union territories between September and October. As many as 76,706 households, 7,299 schools in 17,184 villages across India were covered in the survey.
  • ASER reports on the schooling status of children in the 5-16 age group across rural India and their ability to do basic reading and arithmetic tasks.

Aim of the Survey

  • The survey was aimed at finding out how children in the age group of 5-16 studied at home since the onset of the pandemic and the challenges that the schools and households now face as schools reopen across states.

The ASER 2021 Survey explored the following areas:

  • Children's Enrollment
  • Paid Tuition Classes
  • Access to Smartphones
  • Learning Support at Home
  • Access to and Availability of Learning Materials
  • Additional areas such as engagement with learning activities, and challenges of remote learning
  • School Survey

Important Findings

Enrollment in Govt. Schools

  • There has been an overall increase in the proportion of children enrolled in govt schools between 2018 and 2020 i.e. from 64.3% to 65.8%. However, in the year 2021, the enrollment suddenly went up to 70.3%. This was mainly due to:
    • Financial distress caused by the pandemic
    • Free facilities available at the government schools
    • Private schools’ failure to conduct online classes
    • Migration during the lockdown
  • The report pointed out that the maximum increase in government schools has been registered in Uttar Pradesh (13.2 per cent), followed by Kerala (11.9 per cent).
  • Enrollment in Pvt. Schools: The enrolment rate in private schools has however gone down from last year. In 2020, the enrolment rate was 28.8% and in 2021 the enrolment rate went down to 24.4%.

Availability/Access to Smartphones

  • Availability of smartphones increased from 36.5% in 2018 to 67.6% in 2021.
  • More children in private schools had smartphone at home (79%) compared to government school going children (63.7%).
  • Although over two thirds of all enrolled children have a smartphone at home, just over a quarter of these have full access to it for their studies (27%), while close to half have partial access (47%) and the remaining quarter have no access at all (26.1%).

By Grade: Children in higher classes having more access to a smartphone as compared to children in lower grades. For example, 39.3% children in Std I-II have no access to a smartphone despite having one at home, as opposed to 17% children in Std IX or higher.

Parent’s Education & Smartphone

  • Household economic status (proxied here by parents’ education level) affects smartphone availability. As parents' education level increases, the likelihood that the household has a smartphone also increases: in 2021, over 80% of children with parents who had studied at least till Std IX had a smartphone available at home, as compared to just over 50% children whose parents had studied till Std V or less.
  • Notably, though, even among children with parents in the ‘low’ education category, over a quarter of households had bought a new smartphone for their children's studies since the lockdown began in March 2020.

Tuition

  • The proportion of children taking tuition has increased from 2018 to 2021, regardless of grade, school type, or sex. Currently, almost 40% children take paid private tuition classes.
  • The largest increases in the proportion of children taking tuition are seen among children from the most disadvantaged households.

Learning Support at Home

  • The proportion of enrolled children who receive learning support at home has decreased by almost 8 percentage points for both government and private school going children since 2020, with the sharpest drop visible among children in higher grades. Decreasing family involvement is driven by school reopening, with children who had returned to school receiving less help at home than those whose schools remained closed.The reduction in help with studies is driven largely by less support from fathers.
  • Help at home is also related to parents’ education level. While close to 80% children with parents in the‘high’education category received help at home, this proportion is under 50% for children whose parents have studied up to Std V or less.

Learning Materials available for Children

  • Almost all enrolled children have textbooks for their current grade (91.9%). This proportion has increased over the last year, for children enrolled in both government and private schools.

Swachh Survekshan 2022


On 27th September 2021, the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched the seventh consecutive edition of Swachh Survekshan (SS), the world’s largest urban cleanliness survey conducted by Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U).


Source: PIB

Highlights

  • ‘People First’: Designed with ‘People First’ as its driving philosophy, Swachh Survekshan 2022 is curated towards capturing the initiatives of cities for the overall welfare and well-being of frontline sanitation workers.
  • Priority to Voices of Senior Citizens and Young Adults: The survey will also give priority to the voices of senior citizens and young adults alike and reinforce their participation towards upholding the cleanliness of urban India.
  • Specific Indicators: SS 2022 has incorporated specific indicators that drive cities to improve working conditions and livelihood opportunities for frontline soldiers in urban India’s sanitation journey.
  • Citizen Ownership of Heritage Spots for Cleanliness: The survey is set to protect India’s ancient legacy and culture by nudging citizens to take ownership and initiative to clean urban India’s monuments and heritage spots.

Major Changes Introduced

  • Two Population Categories: This year’s Survekshan is committed to creating a level playing field for smaller cities by introducing two population categories under 15K and between 15-25K.
  • District Ranking: To further expand the Survekshan footprint, district rankings have been introduced for the first time.
  • 100 % Wards Sampling: The scope of the survey has been expanded to now cover 100% wards for sampling, as compared to 40% in previous years.
  • Number of Assessors Doubled: In order to seamlessly carry out this ambitious exercise, SS 2022 will see more than twice the number of assessors deployed last year for the on-field assessment.
  • Improved Technological Intervention: In keeping with vision of a Digital India, the upcoming edition of Survekshan shall usher in improved technological interventions such as digital tracking of documents, geo-tagging of sanitation and waste management of facilities for better efficiency, and QR code-based citizens’ feedback for increased people outreach.

Through these multi-faceted initiatives, the SS 2022 framework will propel the Mission towards a circular economy approach through optimum resource recovery.

State Food Safety Index 2020-21


  • The third State Food Safety Index was released on 20th September 2021.
  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) releases the State Food Safety Index annually based on the overall performance on food safety indices.
  • The first such report was released on World Food Safety Day on June 7, 2019.
  • FSSAI’s State Food Safety Index (SFSI) measures the performance of States on five parameters of food safety:
    • Human Resources and Institutional Data (20% weightage)
    • Compliance (30% weightage)
    • Food Testing – Infrastructure and Surveillance (20% weightage)
    • Training & Capacity Building (105 weightage)
    • Consumer Empowerment (20% weightage)

Source: Food Safety and Standards Authority of India

Rankings (Top 3) and at the Bottom

Large States

  1. Gujarat
  2. Kerala
  3. Tamil Nadu

At the Bottom: Bihar

Small States

  1. Goa
  2. Meghalaya
  3. Manipur

At the Bottom: Mizoram

UTs

  1. J&K
  2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  3. Delhi

At the Bottom: Lakshadweep